Manifestations of virtual violence in electronic games and their impact on pupils behaviours

An analytical field study on the PUBG game

تمثلات العنف الافتراضي في الألعاب الالكترونية وتأثيرها على سلوك التلاميذ -دراسة تحليلية ميدانية على لعبة ببجي PUBG

Les manifestations de la violence virtuelle dans les jeux électroniques et leur impact sur le comportement des élèves — étude analytique empirique sur PUBG

Hadjer Bouamoucha Fatma Mecemma

Hadjer Bouamoucha Fatma Mecemma, « Manifestations of virtual violence in electronic games and their impact on pupils behaviours », Aleph [], Vol 10 (3) | 2023, 13 May 2023, 22 May 2024. URL : https://aleph.edinum.org/8718

The present study aimed to investigate the manifestations of virtual violence in electronic games and their impact on pupils’ behavior by conducting an analytical study on the PUBG game. Furthermore, the study also sought to identify the structure and content of this game by analyzing video clips using content analysis tool, in addition to conducting a field study that was carried out on a sample of pupil’s between the ages of 6 and 13 years, using the unregulated interview tool in order to monitor the various emotions and behaviours of the respective sample.

Moreover, the interviews took place when the sample were playing the aforementioned game which is characterized by the use of sniper rifles along with white weapons, alongside killing, shooting, and unlawfully assaulting the property of others, in addition to several negative values ​​included in the game, foremost of which is murder. The field study concluded that repeated exposure to the game leads to the emergence of aggressive behavior among pupils, which was represented in some manifestations of verbal violence, such as the use of immoral words and insults, as well as physical violence such as physical assault and beatings in an attempt to simulate the contents of the game.

تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى البحث في تمثلات العنف الافتراضي في الألعاب الالكترونية وتأثيرها على سلوك التلاميذ وذلك بالقيام بدراسة تحليلية للعبة ببجي PUBG، ونسعى من خلالها إلى التعرف على شكل ومضمون هذه اللعبة بتحليل مقاطع فيديو باستخدام أداة تحليل المضمون هذا من جهة، ومن جهة أخرى القيام بدراسة ميدانية تم تطبيقها على عينة من التلاميذ الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين 6سنوات و13سنة، وذلك بالاعتماد على أداة المقابلة غير المقننة بهدف رصد مختلف انفعالات وسلوك العينة أثناء لعبهم.

وقد أفرزت الدراسة التحليلية أن لعبة التحليل جاءت في قالب درامي ممزوج بالخيال العلمي، وأن أكثر الوسائل استخداما هي البنادق القناصة إلى جانب الأسلحة البيضاء، بالإضافة إلى محتويات القتل وإطلاق الرصاص والاعتداء على ممتلكات الآخرين دون وجه حق، وبعض القيم السلبية المتضمنة في اللعبة في مقدمتها القتل. وتوصلت الدراسة الميدانية إلى أن التعرض المتكرر للعبة ببجي يؤدي إلى ظهور السلوك العدواني لدى التلاميذ وقد تمثل في بعض مظاهر العنف اللفظي كاستخدام الألفاظ غير الأخلاقية والسب والشتم، وكذلك العنف الجسدي كالاعتداء الجسدي والضرب في محاولة لمحاكاة محتويات اللعبة.

Cette étude vise à étudier les manifestations de la violence virtuelle via les jeux électroniques et leur impact sur le comportement des élèves en menant une étude analytique du jeu PUBG et à travers laquelle nous cherchons à reconnaître le format et le contenu de ce jeu en analysant des vidéos à l’aide d’outil d’analyse de contenu d’une part, D’autre part, une étude empirique a été réalisée et appliquée à un échantillon d’élèves âgés de 6 à 13 ans afin de surveiller les différentes émotions et le comportement de l’échantillon pendant le jeu.

L’étude analytique a révélé que le jeu d’analyse est venu sous une forme dramatique mélangée avec la science-fiction, et que les moyens les plus couramment utilisés sont des fusils de sniper avec des armes blanches, ainsi que le contenu de tuer, tirer et agresser injustement la propriété d’autrui, et certaines des valeurs négatives incluses dans le jeu dans le meurtre le plus important. L’étude empirique a révélé que l’exposition fréquente au jeu PUBG conduit à l’émergence d’un comportement agressif chez les élèves et a impliqué certaines manifestations de violence verbale telles que l’utilisation de mots immoraux, les insultes ainsi que la violence physique comme les agressions physiques dans une tentative de simuler le contenu du jeu.

Introduction

The world witnessed a great advancement in the field of modern information and communication technology during the last three decades, which had an impact on both the individual and society at large in its various aspects due to the unlimited spread and inclusion in the whole world; thus, forming a source of power and hegemony in the global social system in addition to influencing the content produced by the media. Society in its various categories cannot escape from the repercussions of technological inevitability; perhaps the most important outcomes of information and communication technology are the emergence of the Internet and computers, which upended the scales and changed some normative concepts, such as the way of playing according to the child, which witnessed a tangible development in response to the technological change, as it moved from the traditional form based games to electronic games, which are one of the most important developments in the world of the games because of their attractions in offering an interesting virtual reality that attracts the user such as graphics, colors, imagination and adventure in a way that makes them simulate the real world more than imagination.

In the process of schooling, the child or the pupil is considered a sensitive and important segment in society due to the educational system that seeks to form and educate them. Scientists have stressed the importance of the early years of a child’s life by arguing that the experiences that an individual goes through in his/her early years can completely change the path or situation that s/he will take. Later on, the enrollment of the child in school provides them with an environment suitable for their needs and characteristics in terms of the way teachers deal with them, or what the experiences and skills which are provided to them. However, the type of games spread in their electronic form can turn into a model that reflects manifestations of violence in its form and content, such as war and fighting games that are fueled by scenes of violence, crime and aggression, which have become their refuge - especially in light of excessive use and the absence of parental control - to fill their spare time. The latter allows them to embody the character of the indomitable hero designed with all the elements of excitement, and the fact that the pupil is the one who manages the playing scenario in an interactive way and takes on roles such as a warrior on the battlefield, practicing all forms of violence and crime through an unreal virtual space whose effects may extend to the real world, which may be directly reflected on his or her behaviours and reactions over time, given that everything that the pupil sees - as a child - with the force of time can unconsciously turn into part of their convictions, to translate these convictions in the end into negative behaviours and values spread ​​in society.

Moreover, the Algerian Organization for Consumer Protection and Guidance also expressed, in a statement issued recently on its Facebook page, the extent of its dissatisfaction with this game and other electronic games that make children obsessed and addicted to them. One member of the organization, argued that some children have been completely immersed and integrated with the game without the supervision of their parents, which causes strange behaviours due to unexpected things that happen in the game such as the story of the child who caused terror and panic in the hearts of his family members, as he suddenly screamed at the top of his voice, before entering immediately afterwards in a state of hysteria And a severe nervous breakdown, as he was shown to a psychiatrist who told them that he had gone into a state of madness, despite the fact that he had not previously suffered from any mental or neurological disease” (Issawi 2020). As a result of the widespread of electronic games among pupils in all countries of the world in general and Algeria in particular, alongside the increase in the number of hours spent, specifically in the PUBG game, which is the sample of the analytical study.

By conducting an analytical study on the game PUBG, this research paper was able to unravel the manifestations of virtual violence in electronic games and the extent of their impact on pupils’ behaviours in light of the danger that Algerian pupils who play PUBG face as a result of the aforementioned reasons. The main aim of this study was to determine the structure and content of this game as well as to conduct a field study with a sample of pupils whose ages ranged from 6 to 13 years to determine its effects on the behavior of the study sample’s pupils. Accordingly, the following main question emerged:

What are the manifestations of virtual violence in the game PUBG and what is their impact on the behaviours of the pupils in the study sample?

1. Methodological framework

1.1. Questions of the analytical study

  • What is the structural form of PUBG?

  • What are the methods used in the game PUBG?

  • What are the technical effects used in the game PUBG?

  • What is the nature of the contents in the game PUBG?

  • What are the places displayed in the game PUBG?

  • What are the negative values ​​included in the game PUBG?

1.2. Questions of the Field study

  • What are the habits and patterns of practicing PUBG for pupils in the study sample?

  • What are the motives for the study sample pupils to play PUBG?

  • What are the effects of violence included in the PUBG game on the pupils in the study sample?

1.3. Objectives of the study

We aim to achieve the following objectives through our research:

  • Identifying the characteristics of the form and content of the PUBG game.

  • Investigating the habits and patterns of the study sample pupils in playing the PUBG game.

  • Investigating the motives behind the practice of the study sample of the PUBG game.

  • Detecting the effects caused by the violence included in the game on the behaviours of the pupils in the study sample.

2. Study Concepts

It was vital for the researchers to deal with the concepts that make up the keys to the study because every scientific research consists of a group of connected concepts to the research problem:

2.1. Violence

Violence is defined in a variety of ways, from many perspectives due to the psychological, social, cultural, and political ramifications it has:

In the Al-Mohit Dictionary:

“Violence is the opposite of kindness, violence as generosity … a violent person is one who is not kind, and resort to harsh words and actions. As for the intermediate dictionary, it defined violence as being against kindness and the state of cruelty” (Mansour 2013: 20).

Through the linguistic definition, we conclude that violence is against kindness and it is a form of severity and cruelty.

Legally, violence is defined as “physical or psychological assault on people that causes physical or psychological harm and is punishable by law.” It is also defined as

“the human use of force by imposing coercion, frightening and intimidating others, and directed at things by destroying, corrupting or seizing them, that use that is always illegal and originally constitutes a crime.” (Al-Raqib 2010: 20).

Furthermore, the World Health Organization defines violence as:

“the intentional use of physical force or power, whether in threat or action, by a person or against a community that results in the potential of injury, death, psychological injury, mal-development, or deprivation”.

It should be noted that due to the different definitions of violence, these definitions have been categorized into two main directions:

  • The first direction: violence is regarded as the actual use or threat of force to inflict harm and damage on people and property.

  • The second direction: violence is regarded as an expression of structural conditions, i.e., a set of ingredients and features in the economic and social environment of society, and therefore it is called structural violence, as it often leads to a case of structural violence that erupts behavioral violence that includes the use of force and the threat of using it to protest against Continuing the structural situation and working to change it.” (Al-Hajj 2016: 68)

In conclusion, violence, generally, is regarded as a behavior that leads to harm to others and even to oneself, and it is every movement and action that may harm the body such as killing, burning or beating, or harming the psychological aspect of the abused person such as slander, cursing, cursing, humiliation and insult.

2.2. Virtual violence

The virtual violence is known to

“carry a deep significance within the framework of describing electronic digital products and depicting their infinite and unlimited formats. Furthermore, the term virtual is used in modern media and communication studies to mean all the systems that attempt to simulate reality in its dimensions by digital technological means, an expression used to describe something that is not physical (i.e, fake or imaginary)” (Mahmoudi 2016: 23).

In addition to that, virtual violence is procedurally defined as every depiction of various forms of imaginary, fake, intangible violence that takes place through electronic devices such as computers, smart-phones and electronic boards/tabs, and presented in game programs within a virtual world of a violent electronic game, and we refer here to the PUBG game.

2.3. Playing

The Dictionary of Lisan al-Arab argues that:

“Play and playing are against seriousness. The noun refers to anyone who does a deed that does not benefit him/her or the society: you are a player, and the play is like a game.” Al Alama Al-Lihyani said: I have never seen a better game for you than this. Ibn Al-Skeet says: Whose game, is it? So, it includes the first one, because it is a name, and chess is a game, and dice.” (Bin Makram, al-Masri 1990: 740, 741)

Nassima Belghazali defined play as

“a free, directed or undirected activity that takes the form of movement, which children practice in groups or individually, and activates the body’s mental and kinetic energy, and is characterized by speed and lightness because it is linked to internal self-motivations and does not stress the child, and with it the child obtains information that becomes part of their life and the goal is to have fun and to pass the time.” (Bel Ghazali 2016: 71).

2.4. Electronic games

Electronic games are defined as

“a promotional activity that first surfaced in the late 1960s and is largely a mental activity that encompasses all board games, computer games, mobile games, and video games in general. This activity is practiced in an information program.” The way in which other activities are carried out, and we mean laptops and fixed computers, mobile phones, television and other media, and the latter are practiced collectively via the Internet or individually. (Kouider 2011: 32)

Moaz Al-Homsi defines it in the Arabic Electronic Encyclopedia as

“in the information concept, software that simulates a real or virtual reality by relying on the capabilities of the computer in dealing with various means, displaying and moving images and issuing sound, while in the social concept it is an interaction between man and machine to benefit from its capabilities in education, entertainment and entertainment. In practical terms, electronic games represent a tool that limits the capabilities of the investor, as it puts him in front of difficulties and obstacles ranging from simplicity to complexity, and from slow to speed, and a tool for developing his culture and ability as it attracts his attention and transmits information to him with ease and pleasure.” (Al-Homsi: 253).

Moreover, Salan and Zimmerman define it as “all games available in their electronic form, including computer games, Internet games, video games, mobile games, and hand-held games.” (Salan, Zimmerman 2004: 86)

2.5. The pupil

The term pupil refers to

“a person engaged in primary, middle or secondary education. The pupil is also known as the first axis and the at last goal of all education and teaching processes. The pupil is the reason behind the establishment of the school with all its equipment and capabilities. All these huge efforts that are made in various fields for the benefit of the pupil must have the goal of forming his spirit, mind and body in addition to his knowledge and direction.” (Sofi, 2010: 55).

In the same line of thought, it is procedurally defined as that pupil who practices his studies in the primary or intermediate phase and is a practitioner of the PUBG game.

2.6. PUBG game

PUBG is an abbreviation for Player Unknown’s Battlegrounds and translates into Arabic as Unknown Players Battlegrounds. It is a massively multiplayer online game and also a survival game. It was released on March 23, 2017, and it is available on Windows and Xbox One devices. The first two versions were released in early 2018 for both platforms; IOS and Android and they are developed by Tencent, which collaborated with Bluehole to release the game on mobile phones, and it works with the same engine as the original version, then the initial version was developed by Bluehole on Unreal Engine 4, Which contains the Arabic language, so it is one of the electronic games that are played on smart-phones or on computer devices. (Al-Madhoun 2019: 3)

This game is one of the latest versions of the royal wars games, and it is “a game inspired by a Japanese movie that was released in 2000 under the name ‘Batoru Rowaiaru’, which revolves around a group of middle school pupils who are sent by the Japanese government to a remote island and forced to confront them to death by killing each other in order to survive.

The game begins with jumping from planes with parachutes and choosing one of four proposed maps, in which 100 players participate and each player searches for weapons, equipment and resources scattered on the map to increase the chances of survival.” (Galka, Strzelecki 2021: 2 - 3)

3. The study population and sample

The study population means all the study elements and sample who are concerned with the phenomenon under study, and based on this definition, our study community is represented by all the children who play the game, and due to the size of the population and the impossibility of studying all its elements, the sample survey method was relied on, and the sample in the field of research is

“the part chosen by the researcher according to the methods Specific so that the research community represents a sound scientific representation, and the sample survey is chosen due to the difficulty of enumerating all the vocabulary of the community, especially if its vocabulary is in the thousands and millions. (Ben Morsli 2010: 169)

In the present study, we opted for the intentional sample,

“which is that non-probability sampling. It is that sample chosen from the population in an intentional and deliberate way, that is, in a way that does not give the population units or the research population an equal opportunity to choose. The researcher determines the size of the sample and asks the interviewer to choose its elements.” in the manner and method appropriate to it. (Abdul-Ghani 2007: 56)

We chose this type of sampling because it is the most appropriate, as it will give us the opportunity to choose the elements of the sample that will be included in our study, as we will choose the characteristics and specifications that serve our research and can provide information, facts and data that lead us to the desired results, and thus save us effort, time and the trouble of dealing with a sample which may not be able to provide us with assistance or do not serve the objectives of our research, and the possibility of choosing intentionally ensures that the items withdrawn from the original population will provide us with the cooperation that we aspire to have. Moreover, the study sample consists of 30 elements (male children between the ages of 6 and 13 years (based on our survey and based on the results of previous studies, it became clear that males are the most practicing game groups compared to females); thus, the questionnaire was distributed to them.

3.1. Study methodology and tools

For the success of any research, a set of organized intellectual and mental steps must be followed in order to reach accurate results and achieve the objectives of the study, by following an approach that is in line with the nature and problematic of the study. It is raised by the subject of the research, and it is the program that determines the way for us to reach these facts and ways to discover them.” (Shafiq 2008: 85).

Since our study belongs to descriptive studies that seek to study the current facts related to the nature of the phenomenon, a situation or a group of people, the researchers followed the descriptive analytical approach, as the study aimed to reach a complete and accurate description of the representations of virtual violence in the PUBG game and its impact on the behavior of study sample pupils.

3.2. Study tools

The selection of the necessary research tools to collect data and information depends on the subject of the research and the type of data and information required, and the accuracy of any scientific research depends on the selection of appropriate tools that are in line with the nature of the topic, in order to obtain data and data that serve the objectives of the study.

In collecting data from the study population, the two researchers relied on the content analysis form tool, which is defined as the “analysis tool designed by the researcher to help him collect and monitor the required data to find recurrence rates. It is located on the right of the page, followed by a number of columns showing the degree of presence of each element in the content being analyzed. (Dukan 2015: 142)

The content analysis form for this study included four axes:

  • The first axis: It contains general data about the PUBG game such as the name of the game, the game production company … etc.

  • The second axis: contains data related to the game format categories under analysis, such as: output template category, artistic effects.

  • The third axis: It contains data regarding the categories of the content of the game under analysis, such as: the nature of the contents category, the means used category, the category of places, the category of values ​​included.

  • The fourth axis: it deals with general observations, after forming the content analysis form and its evidence, it was presented to a committee of professors specialized in the field of social sciences and humanities in order to judge it. From the PUBG game, it transformed representations of virtual violence into qualitative data and information by providing analytical and interpretive readers according to its general social context.

  • The researchers adopted the “Scene Unit” as a main tool for counting, measuring and analyzing the content of the PUBG game, which contains content related to the subject of virtual violence, and this unit is considered the most important unit of audiovisual content analysis.

Given the nature of the sample and the fact that the respondents are students between the ages of 6 and 13, the academic necessity also points us toward the use of the unrestricted interview tool as the best method for achieving the study’s goals because it is characterized by the freedom that permits the respondent to express himself automatically and spontaneously. To make it simpler for students to respond to and explain the meaning of potentially confusing questions addressed at them and that suit the research’s aims, the interview questions’ simplicity and directness were taken into consideration.

3.3. Analytical study

The results of the analytical study showed that 93 percent of the PUBG games were dramatic in nature, giving the player the impression that they are watching a movie rather than engaging in an electronic game at times, particularly as the game advances from one stage to the next and incorporate science fiction which is a form of drama in which the pupil - as a player - displays superhuman skills and abilities in fighting and wrestling, which increases his level of immersion in the game and increases the possibility of confusing real reality with the virtual world. He does not realize the difference between the virtual world presented by the game and reality, and studies have proven that a child under the age of seven cannot distinguish between reality and imagination.” (Hadara, 2014)

The analytical study showed that the (PUBG) game used sound effects by (94%), which are represented in the sounds of shooting and explosions and the screams of the dead and injured, which creates the appropriate atmosphere for fighting and enhances the excitement and enthusiasm of the pupil to interact with the game and establishes in it a sense of reality.

The analytical study showed that the most used means in the PUBG game are sniper rifles of all kinds, with a percentage of (28.30%), followed by machine guns with a percentage of (20%), then pistols with a percentage of (17.83%), then a cleaver, machete and lever with a percentage of (8.76%) for each one, and finally shields and helmets at (8.17%). These numbers indicate that the analysis game introduces pupils to various types of war weapons and tools of real crime and enables them to learn about their arts and tricks, such as the method of shooting using sniper rifles or machine guns or pistols to other firearms, as well as slaughter using white weapons such as a cleaver, crowbar, machete and other methods of crime.

The PUBG analytical research generated a set of contents, the most prominent of which are murder, shooting, and property assault, with a percentage of (35.31 ٪) for each, followed by scenes of nudity and pornographic content, with a percentage of (29.38 ٪) for each. Furthermore, we read through these numbers that the amounts of virtual violence that the pupil is exposed to during his practice of this game, which in its entirety are negative connotations that affect his subconscious mind and translate into violent and aggressive behavior in the real world, especially since the game depends on the principle of risking to death or killing in order to survive, meaning that the entertainment is enjoying killing others and destroying their property and unlawful assault, specifically at this age of the pupil, in which he is supposed to be saturated with all the correct principles and noble values ​​that will bring him a sound psychological development and health.

The analytical study revealed that the most popular places in the PUBG game are buildings (47.27%), followed by forests (26.08%), then the desert and the military island (13.32%) for each one, and these numbers indicate to the diversity of places in the game and their simulation of the real world.

The analytical study showed that the game (PUBG) produced a set of negative values, foremost of which were killing (27.24%), then hitting, risking, hatred, and hostility (20.25%) for each one, and finally the value of nudity (12.01%)., which are all negative values ​​that embody virtual violence in all its forms and threaten the psychological and mental health of the pupil, especially since the main goal of the game is to survive for as long as possible through the player killing everyone he meets and eliminating him in all available ways so that he can win and survive and here it rises for him Rates of hatred towards the other and the value of aggression is rooted in it, which is a very dangerous indicator as it may be deposited in the pupil ’s personality and reflect on this real reality on the one hand, and on the other hand, the pupil at this age believes that killing and violence through the virtual world is harmless and therefore makes this deal With violence in the real world as a normal event and it is okay to use it with others.

3.4. Field study

Table 1. shows the nature of the devices used in the PUBG game

Percentage

Frequency

Type of device

76%

25

Smart phones

6%

2

Computers

18%

6

whiteboards

100%

33

The overall

Source: Designed by the two researchers

According to the statistics displayed in the above table, smart phones account for the majority of the devices used by students to play the PUBG game, with a percentage of (76%) followed by electronic whiteboards with a percentage of (18%) and computers with a rate of (6%). This can be explained by the fact that smart phone devices have become accessible to all age groups, and their prices have become accessible to Algerian families compared to previous years, and pupil s prefer playing the game on them because of the ease of carrying them and moving them freely from one place to another due to their small size.

Table 2. Shows the number of hours the respondents have played PUBG

Percentage

Frequency

Statements

16.7%

5

Less than two hours

76.7%

23

From 2 to 4 hours

6.6%

2

More than 4 hours

100%

30

The overall

Source: Designed by the two researchers

The statistical results classified in the table shown show that (76.7%) of the total respondents play the game for a period ranging from 2 to 4 hours, then (16.7%) of the total respondents play the game for less than two hours, and finally (6.6%) of the total respondents playing the game more than four hours.

Through a quantitative reading of the table shown above, it becomes clear that the study sample is playing the game at a rate that exceeds the other options, which confirms that the PUBG game has become consuming a large amount of pupil s’ time, which may affect them negatively in terms of health, both psychological and physical. It also affects their academic achievement and social skills, which call for parental control to rationalize children’s use of electronic games, determine the reasonable time for playing without excessive or negligence, and try to encourage them to engage in other recreational activities that increase their chances of contact with the real world, such as sports, swimming and horse riding. and others.

Table 3. Represents the reasons why respondents are attracted to PUBG

Percentage

Frequency

Reasons

13.3%

6

Places used

40%

18

Strength and fights

26.7%

12

advanced weapons

20%

9

Competition between friends

100%

45

The overall

Source: Designed by the two researchers

Table 3, explains the reasons for the respondents’ attraction to playing the game, shows that (40%) of the respondents were attracted to the game because of the advantage of strength and fighting that the game provides, while the advantage of advanced weapons used in the game came in second place with (26.7%) in terms of factors which contributed to attracting them to play this game, while (20%) of the respondents were attracted by the advantage of competition between friends. What is attracted to this type of fighting game is that it provides him with the opportunity to experience different feelings, which makes them not tend to leave the game because of the characteristics and elements of suspense and excitement that it provides across its different levels. Thus, the game has provided a set of features through which it was able to attract many individuals and people of different groups, especially pupils. The design of the game supports and enhances its practice through the presentation of sound and image and the method of operation, all of which have increased the number of users of this game across the world. The team of designers of these games is working on all the factors of excitement and fun in playing.

Table 4. Shows the motives for individuals to play PUBG

Percentage

Frequency

Statements

29.8%

11

fill free time

13.5%

5

Communicate with friends

8.1%

3

Curiosity

48.6%

18

Recreation and entertainment

100%

37

The overall

Source: Designed by the two researchers

The findings of the above table demonstrate that (48.6%) of the respondents play PUBG for amusement because they think it offers features and tactics that other games and activities don’t provide them, while (29.8%) of the respondents play it for leisure. Curiosity and the need to communicate with friends ranked third and fourth, respectively, with equal numbers of (13.5%) and (8.1%).

Table 5. Shows the effects of the PUBG game on the pupil s in the study sample

Percentage

Frequency

Statements

29.3%

17

He does not like to leave the house

13.8%

8

Affect school achievement

10.3%

6

Affect the health side

20.7%

12

They become disinterested in other activities and duties

8.7%

5

It increases anxiety

17.2%

10

behave aggressively

100%

58

The overall

Source: Designed by the two researchers

The results of the table above demonstrate that the game has negative effects on its users, as (30.3%) of respondents indicated that they preferred not to leave the house because of the game. Since students spend most of their time playing the game, this may have a negative impact on their social interactions and lead to a state of isolation. Moreover, living virtually and being cut off from reality, while (20.7%) of the respondents became uninterested in other activities and duties, and we noticed through our observation of the research sample while they were playing that they immersed themselves with the game to the extent that they neglect their meals and religious duties, and the game also affected the aspect The behavioral of children as they became more aggressive and nervous, and we also noticed a relationship between playing the game and uttering offensive and inappropriate phrases due to increased anxiety and raising levels of tension. It had an impact on the health aspect, as there are those who suffer from red eyes due to spending a long time in front of the phone screen, and there are those who play the game at night, which affects their sleep time, especially at this stage which the child should get enough sleep, which works to secrete growth hormone and strengthen his immune system, thus enjoying a healthy body from a mental and physical point of view; physiological changes can also occur, affecting how a child interprets an emotion.

Table 6. Shows the respondents’ ability to dispense with the PUBG game

Percentage

Frequency

Statements

70%

21

Yes

30%

9

No

100%

30

The overall

Source: Designed by the two researchers

According to the results of the above table, (70%) of respondents said they were unable to stop playing the game, while only (30%) of respondents said they could stop. Based on the statistical findings, we can therefore say that this game has become a component of the game. As a substantial portion of the respondents have developed a gaming addiction, it is crucial in the everyday activities of students. Psychologist Mahmoudia Fathia indicated that

“addiction to electronic games leads to electronic autism, and the resulting introversion, depression, isolation, insomnia and complete fusion in a virtual world. In the absence of communication, realistic communication and attention within the family, and many parents resigning from their responsibilities, and thus not monitoring what children watch or play games on their boards, smartphones or computers.” (Issawi, February 2020)

3.5. Analytical study results

  • The PUBG game comes in the form of drama mixed with science fiction.

  • PUBG uses sound effects such as gunfire, explosions and screams of the dead to enhance the excitement and enthusiasm and establish a sense of reality.

  • The means and weapons of war in the PUBG game varied between firearms such as sniper rifles, machine guns and pistols, and between white weapons such as machete and lever,

  • PUBG has a lot of killing content.

  • PUBG has promoted some negative values ​​such as killing, shooting, and unjustly assaulting the property of others.

3.6. The results of the field study

  • Pupils in the study sample use smart phones to play PUBG.

  • Pupils in the study sample are exposed to the PUBG game for two to four hours.

  • Pupils are attracted to PUBG because of the strength and combat features that are available in the game.

  • Pupils in the study sample, play the PUBG game out of recreation and entertainment.

  • The PUBG game affected the pupils in the study sample negatively and caused them isolation and separation from reality and attachment to the virtual world.

Conclusion

The field analytical study focused on the virtual violence depicted in the PUBG game and how it affected students’ behavior. It was discovered that students’ repeated exposure to violent content that featured shooting and slaughter with firearms and white and was highly realistically designed may foster the growth of aggressive scenarios. Additionally, some harmful negative values are being instilled, including violence, abuse, hatred, and nudity. These values endanger Algerian society’s stability and security, particularly because students make up a significant portion of the population because they are the future leaders of the country. The following recommendations and suggestions can be made in light of the findings:

  • Holding a group of school activities, cultural and recreational forums, in order for pupils to spend their free time.

  • Continuing to conduct studies on the relationship between depicted violence in electronic games and its impact on the child’s behavior, to delve deeper in order to reach the best preventive and curative methods and strategies.

  • Developing strategies to create special units dealing with psychological and emotional issues for pupils to guide them and ensure positive guidance.

  • Conducting awareness media campaigns in educational institutions to guide pupils towards the positive and healthy use of modern technologies.

  • Working on integrating media education programs into educational curricula, which would contribute to providing the child with critical skills and thinking about how to deal with technology.

  • Monitoring the content that children consume by parents, and encourage them to play games that develop thinking and critical skills.

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Hadjer Bouamoucha

Mohammed Seddik Benyahia — Université de Jijel

Fatma Mecemma

Mohammed Seddik Benyahia – Université de Jijel

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