Fostering the Reading Skill through Teaching Texts of Civilization and Literature

تنمية مهارة القراءة من خلال تدريس نصوص الحضارة والأدب

Favoriser la Compétence de la Lecture par l’Enseignement des Textes de Civilisation et Littérature

Nadia Louahala Nadia Amrane

p. 69-81

Nadia Louahala Nadia Amrane, « Fostering the Reading Skill through Teaching Texts of Civilization and Literature », Aleph, Vol 10 (4-2) | 2023, 69-81.

Nadia Louahala Nadia Amrane, « Fostering the Reading Skill through Teaching Texts of Civilization and Literature », Aleph [], Vol 10 (4-2) | 2023, 14 May 2023, 18 June 2024. URL : https://aleph.edinum.org/9251

The cultivation of proficient reading skills assumes paramount significance as a conduit for language acquisition, personal refinement, and cognitive enrichment. The intricate interplay between the effectiveness and authenticity of textual resources, tailored to align with learners' proficiency levels, poses a pervasive challenge for educators in the realm of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instruction. Within this purview, literature and civilization texts have emerged as salient focal points, heralding the potential to invigorate reading motivation and engender a sense of personal gratification. This research endeavor embarks on a comprehensive exploration, seeking to ascertain the extent to which literature and civilization texts may serve as catalysts for the augmentation of learners' reading proficiencies.
The study orchestrates a methodological dyad, encompassing two distinct research instruments. A survey, indiscriminately administered to a cohort of forty undergraduate students at the esteemed University Djilali Liabes in Sidi Bel Abbes, constitutes the initial facet of data collection. Concurrently, an intricate interview protocol engages two erudite pedagogues, specialists in literature and civilization, with the overarching aim of elucidating and delving into the ramifications of integrating literary and historical texts. This multifaceted inquiry casts a discerning gaze upon the trajectory of reading skill development, delves into students' perceptions and responses vis-à-vis these specialized texts, and discerns the pedagogical strategies that should be wielded to foster a nuanced and efficacious learning milieu.
The elucidation of findings engenders a discernible narrative, underscored by the potent premise that literature and civilization texts inherently harbor superior pedagogical utility as opposed to conventional textual resources. The amalgamation of literary and historical elements within these texts precipitates a magnetic appeal, catalyzing heightened motivation and engendering a self-enjoyment paradigm. Additionally, the textual tapestry's intrinsic linguistic opulence augments learners' linguistic prowess and aptitude. The pivotal juncture of text selection, intricately intertwined with thematic resonance, surfaces as an indispensable threshold within EFL classrooms, poised to instigate a gateway towards autonomous and explorative reading pursuits.

تساعد مهارات القراءة المتعلمة في تعلم أي لغة، وتحسين شخصياتهم ونموهم الفكري. تمثل فعالية ونوعية النصوص المستخدمة تحديًا للمعلم خاصة من ناحية مستوى المتعلم. تمت الإشارة إلى أن نصوص الأدب والحضارة تكون مفيدة للغاية من خلال زيادة الدافعية للقراءة والتمتع بالذات، لهذا الغرض يهدف هذا البحث إلى فحص ما إذا كانت النصوص الأدبية والحضارية يمكن أن تعزز قدرات القراءة أم لا. تمت هذه الدراسة باستعمال أداتين بحثيتين هما استطلاع موجه عشوائيًا لأربعين طالبًا جامعيا من جامعة الجيلالي اليابس بسيدي بلعباس وايضا مقابلة مع اثنين من مدرسي الادب والحضارة الانجليزية بصدد دراسة استجابة الطلاب للأدب ونصوص الحضارة والقراءة. كذلك تمت دراسة الاستراتيجيات التي يجب على المعلمين استخدامها في الفصول الدراسية لتعزيز عملية التعلم من خلال النصوص من أجل تطوير مهارات القراءة أو بالنسبة للطلاب لأنها مصدر جذب أو تحفيز وكونها غنية للغاية باللغة. يعد اختيار النص وموضوعه خطوة مهمة للغاية في فصل اللغة الإنجليزية كلغة أجنبية التي قد تفتح المجال أمام القراءة المستقلة للمتعلمين أيضًا.

L'acquisition de compétences en lecture revêt une importance capitale en tant que moyen d'acquisition de la langue, de perfectionnement personnel et d'enrichissement cognitif. L'interaction complexe entre l'efficacité et l'authenticité des ressources textuelles, adaptées aux niveaux de compétence des apprenants, constitue un défi permanent pour les éducateurs dans le domaine de l'enseignement de l'anglais langue étrangère (EFL). Dans ce contexte, la littérature et les textes de civilisation ont émergé comme des points focaux importants, annonçant le potentiel de revigorer la motivation de lecture et d'engendrer un sentiment de gratification personnelle. Ce projet de recherche se lance dans une exploration complète, cherchant à déterminer dans quelle mesure la littérature et les textes de civilisation peuvent servir de catalyseurs pour l'amélioration des compétences en lecture des apprenants.
L'étude orchestre une dyade méthodologique, englobant deux instruments de recherche distincts. Une enquête, administrée sans discrimination à une cohorte de quarante étudiants de premier cycle de la prestigieuse université Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel Abbes, constitue la première facette de la collecte de données. Parallèlement, un protocole d'entretien complexe engage deux pédagogues érudits, spécialistes de la littérature et de la civilisation, dans le but primordial d'élucider et d'approfondir les ramifications de l'intégration des textes littéraires et historiques. Cette enquête à multiples facettes jette un regard perspicace sur la trajectoire du développement des compétences en lecture, étudie les perceptions et les réponses des élèves vis-à-vis de ces textes spécialisés et discerne les stratégies pédagogiques qui devraient être utilisées pour favoriser un milieu d'apprentissage nuancé et efficace.
L'élucidation des résultats engendre une narration discernable, soulignée par la prémisse puissante selon laquelle les textes de littérature et de civilisation recèlent intrinsèquement une utilité pédagogique supérieure à celle des ressources textuelles conventionnelles. L'amalgame d'éléments littéraires et historiques dans ces textes exerce un attrait magnétique, catalysant une motivation accrue et engendrant un paradigme de plaisir personnel. En outre, l'opulence linguistique intrinsèque de la tapisserie textuelle renforce les prouesses et les aptitudes linguistiques des apprenants. La sélection des textes, étroitement liée à la résonance thématique, apparaît comme un seuil indispensable dans les classes d'anglais langue étrangère, capable d'ouvrir la voie à des activités de lecture autonomes et exploratoires.

Reading skills are of paramount importance for the acquisition of any language, as well as for academic achievement, intellectual development, and professional advancement. In this context, the authenticity of materials and pedagogical approaches pose significant challenges regarding reading proficiency. Motivational gaps and reading difficulties encountered by learners can impede their ability to achieve their objectives. Consequently, the conception of pertinent and stimulating reading materials, such as literary and cultural works employed for centuries since the Greco-Latin civilization and literature, is imperative. In the current era, facilitated by digital reading, access to such text types is widespread, through series and the Internet. According to Lazar (1993), literary texts encompass universal themes that foster students’ flourishing, engagement, and autonomy.

The competence of reading has been subject to thorough research, yet it continues to attract contemporary research interest, given the intricacies associated with learning and teaching foreign languages. According to Alderson J. C (2000:28), reading for pleasure enhances language comprehension. He articulates:

“An enjoyable, intense, and private activity, a source of great pleasure in which one can become fully immersed. For some, it entails recognizing written words, while for others, it provides an opportunity to refine pronunciation and elocution. Nonetheless, reading always maintains a specific purpose. It intertwines with our daily lives inextricably, often regarded as self-evident and generally perceived as a shared skill.”

Nuttall (1982:168) adds that

“The most effective means to deepen one’s grasp of a foreign language is to dwell among its speakers. The second most effective approach is to extensively read in that language.”

Additionally, reading texts affords readers the potential to amass vocabulary, grasp grammar intricacies, punctuation nuances, and gain insight into the forms, structures, and organization of sentences, paragraphs, and texts. However, teachers of English as a foreign language acknowledge that, for numerous language students, the ability to read fluently, comprehend crucial information, and derive enjoyment from reading constitutes the most invaluable yield of language study. Consequently, they play a pivotal role in aiding learners with limited reading competencies, motivating them to explore a diversity of texts, instilling a reading routine, and nurturing a lifelong yearning for reading (Louahala N, 2017:28). This exploration underscores the influence of literary and cultural texts in enhancing reading skills amongst undergraduate students at the University Djilali Liabes of Sidi Bel Abbes.

1. Texts of Civilization and Literature: An Academic Examination

Numerous scholars have acknowledged the pivotal role of reading as a cognitive skill in the psychological maturation of individuals. However, this holds true only when reading is undertaken with conscious awareness and comprehensive understanding of the material (Mustafa Kulovich, 2019). In actuality, it is imperative to instill within learners not only an inclination for reading, but also the capacity to derive inspiration, engage in critical thought, and derive enjoyment. The thematic essence of a text stands as a pivotal determinant in the act of reading. Texts associated with civilization and literature hold a profound allure for learners, capturing their attention and stimulating curiosity to delve into life experiences and historical narratives. Indeed, the past has bestowed invaluable life lessons upon humanity, which significantly augments linguistic refinement.

Texts of civilization and literature possess an inherent potency to captivate learners, employing real-life experiences as a conduit for fostering debates and enhancing reading comprehension. Ghasemi and Hajizadeh (2011) assert that literary compositions offer a rich experiential landscape for readers, thereby augmenting the process of comprehension through active engagement. Thus, it is unequivocal that literary texts emerge as indispensable pedagogical resources, facilitating a multifaceted learning experience for learners.

Distinguished researchers such as Maley (2001), McRae (1997), Lazar (1993), and Collie and Slater (1994) concur that the selection of texts assumes a central role in curriculum design for language instruction. Furthermore, Collie and Slater (1994) underscore the significance of a judicious text-selection process, which takes into account a myriad of factors, including students’ collaborative dynamics, needs, interests, cultural background, and language proficiency level.

Employing literary texts as robust educational tools within the EFL classroom not only engenders dynamic peer and teacher debates, but also provides a platform for holistic practice across the realms of reading, writing, listening, and speaking. These texts, characterized by their originality and aesthetic beauty, elicit critical thinking by virtue of their adept manipulation of language to mirror authentic dialogues and scenarios, whether imaginative or pragmatic in nature (Savvidou, 2004). Moreover, Dasklovska and Dimova (2012) assert that literary texts harbor multifarious implications, sequentially unraveling layers of connotative meanings embedded within diverse cultures. Consequently, this engenders critical contemplation regarding quotidian matters. Furthermore, these texts, characterized by their authenticity, motivation, and inspiration, fuel robust learner engagement and interactive discourse within the classroom. Subsequently, they stimulate an insatiable appetite for extensive reading. Lazar (1993), in a similar vein, explores the rationale for integrating literature in EFL classrooms, asserting that practice with literary texts serves as a catalyst for honing students’ interpretive faculties, encouraging them to pose inquiries, formulate hypotheses, and establish connections elucidating textual significance.

Learners autonomously select texts in accordance with their proclivities and interests (Eskey & Grabe, 1988). Evidently, the engagement with texts of civilization and literature mirrors the interplay between authors and readers (Hoey, 2001, p. 1; also Widdowson, 1979). Reading serves as an exercise in language immersion, constituting a dynamic linguistic endeavor.

Civilization and literature serve as linguistic conduits that find salient utility within the classroom setting. Akyel & Yalçın (1990) delineate the rationale behind this pedagogical implementation, emphasizing the broadening of learners’ perspectives through the exploration of literary and cultural masterpieces. Indeed, Povey (1972) posits that literature augments language proficiency by fostering heightened comprehension. The act of text engagement can be facilitated by both teachers and learners. Furthermore, McKay (1996) underscores the pivotal nature of text selection, urging a meticulous approach tailored to students’ needs, cultural milieu, and proficiency level.

Brock (1990), in the process of text selection, underscores the necessity of meticulous consideration for a range of elements, chiefly thematic principles, subjects, and concerns woven into literary compositions. These facets significantly influence the comprehension of readings and the cultivation of a genuine affection for literature.

2. Research Methodology: Enhancing Reading Skills through Civilization and Literature Texts

The present study underscores the enhancement of reading skills through the utilization of civilization and literature texts. This investigation employs a survey methodology targeting a cohort of forty undergraduate students enrolled at University Djilali Liabes during May 2022. The survey instrument encompasses a comprehensive array of fourteen items designed to probe various facets of reading attitudes, experiences, and opinions pertinent to the integration of civilization and literature texts within the educational context. The ensuing dataset is subjected to rigorous data collection and analysis procedures to rigorously interrogate the research hypothesis.

In addition to the survey, a structured interview protocol is invoked to further enrich the research inquiry. Two esteemed educators, specializing in distinct domains — specifically, one expert in literature and another in civilization — hailing from University Djilali Liabes, partake in this supplementary phase. This interview engagement seeks to unravel the intricate efficacies underpinning the integration of literary and historical texts within the pedagogical landscape of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instruction. The paramount objective of this investigative endeavor is to engender a profound amelioration in learners’ reading proficiency.

3. Exploring EFL Learners’ Perspectives: A Comprehensive Analysis of Language Proficiency and Reading Practices

3.1 Survey of Students: Navigating Language Proficiency and Reading Patterns

The present section delves into a comprehensive survey of EFL learners, encompassing diverse dimensions of language proficiency and reading practices. This meticulous inquiry sheds light on learners’ perceptions, offering invaluable insights into their engagement with the English language and its multifaceted textual landscapes.

3.1.1 Learners’ Appreciation of English Courses: An Inquiry into Motivation

The initial inquiry pertains to learners’ appreciation of English courses, encapsulating their intrinsic motivation for linguistic engagement. This query is a strategic elucidation of the learners’ stance towards the acquisition of the English language, dissecting the depth of their interest. The results are indicative of a prominent disposition, with an overwhelming majority (85%) affirming the profound significance of EFL courses. A discernible minority (15%) echoes a sentiment of diminished enthusiasm, attributing their reservations to perceived difficulties encountered in mastering the language. It is intriguing to note that while the learners harbor an affinity for the English language itself, the pursuit of its formal study does not uniformly emerge as a personal choice.

3.1.2 Self-Assessment of English Language Proficiency: A Multidimensional Spectrum

A salient facet of this survey pertains to the learners’ self-assessment of their English language proficiency. This aspect inherently encapsulates a multidimensional evaluation of linguistic competence, offering nuanced insights into learners’ perceptions of their abilities. Among the participants, a notable majority (65%) position themselves in the intermediate echelons of proficiency, affirming neither exceptional fluency nor pronounced weakness. A minority (15%) acknowledges a deficiency in their English language skills, while a distinct fraction (10%) asserts the attainment of an advanced level of mastery. This self-assessment concurrently underscores the multifaceted nature of linguistic competence and hints at the requisite autonomy and learner-centeredness essential for the cultivation of elevated proficiency.

3.1.3 Reading Skill Enjoyment and Its Diverse Implications

An exploration into the learners’ disposition towards reading skills forms the crux of this facet of inquiry. Participants unanimously underline the pertinence of reading, attributing its appeal to manifold advantages beyond lexical acquisition. The reading endeavor is extolled for its role in unraveling diverse cultures, styles, forms, and literary voices. The ensuing discourse, post-reading, emerges as an intriguing terrain fostering interaction among educators, peers, and students. This dynamic underscores the interactive dimension of reading as a catalyst for intellectual exchange within the pedagogical milieu.

3.1.4 Unraveling Motives Behind Reading: A Spectrum of Aims

The learners’ motives behind reading endeavors unravel through this avenue of investigation. The panorama is marked by a continuum of motives, offering a mosaic of intent underlying their textual engagements. A notable fraction (50%) manifests a penchant for reading as a source of information acquisition, attesting to its informational utility. A minority (10%) acknowledges the intrinsic gratification gleaned from reading for pleasure. The remainder (40%) articulate a motivation rooted in the augmentation of general knowledge. This spectrum illuminates the diverse dimensions of purpose that underscore the learners’ reading habits.

3.1.5 Engagement with Written Texts: A Holistic Overview

A comprehensive analysis of learners’ leisure pursuits provides insight into their predilections during free intervals. The investigation reveals a predilection for written texts, both within the academic realm and their daily lives. This disposition is characterized by extensive textual engagements, juxtaposed against relatively restrained instances of speaking and writing activities. The prominence attributed to listening skills, situated immediately following reading proficiencies, underscores the layered hierarchy of linguistic competencies. It is evident that learners accord heightened priority to receptive skills, particularly listening and reading, accentuating a potential imbalance in favor of receptive aptitudes.

This detailed exploration is continued in the subsequent response for the sake of continuity.

3.2 Interview of Educators: Exploring Pedagogical Approaches and Challenges

The subsequent phase of inquiry delves into a comprehensive dialogue with educators, unearthing their experiences and perspectives concerning the utilization of texts in the realms of literature and civilization within the context of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) pedagogy.

3.2.1 Pedagogical Tenure and Engagement

A seminal inquiry pertains to the duration of educators’ involvement in the domain of teaching civilization and literature. The corpus of educators interviewed exhibits a collective tenure exceeding five years, signifying a substantial accumulation of instructional experience. This extended exposure equips them with a comprehensive familiarity with didactic strategies and materials intrinsic to the instruction of the English language.

3.2.2 Integration of Texts: A Dichotomy of Practice

The utilization of texts in the teaching of civilization and literature unfolds as a topic of significance, delineating varied dimensions of instructional practice. Within the domain of literature, the employment of literary texts is noted as prevalent, albeit not universally centered around intensive reading. In the realm of civilization, the inclusion of texts is comparatively sporadic, manifesting an occasional integration. Pertinently, educators specializing in history exhibit a propensity for structuring classroom engagements around thematic units, a modality deviating from core text-centric instruction. This divergent approach facilitates learners’ exploration of a spectrum of materials, in pursuit of comprehensive comprehension within a particular thematic domain.

3.2.3 Learner Response and Implications of Textual Integration

Educators’ perspectives on learners’ responses and feedback in relation to the utilization of texts of civilization and literature offer intriguing insights. The incorporation of such texts is acknowledged to evoke a heightened sense of interest and foster critical contemplation among learners. Texts and excerpts, spanning both the domains of literature and civilization, emerge as conduits for delving into historical facets and illuminating real-world issues. The learners’ inherent curiosity acts as a driving force, fueling active engagement. The selection of themes, topics, and texts holds paramount significance, contingent upon learners’ proficiency levels. The interplay of thematic content and textual choices significantly influences the learners’ receptiveness, with both interest and lexical complexity pivotal determinants.

3.2.4 Challenges in Textual Integration and Mitigation Strategies

Challenges encountered during the assimilation of texts into pedagogical frameworks surface as a focal point of inquiry. The temporal constraints of classroom sessions emerge as a recurrent challenge, underscoring the potential for supplemental sessions or encouraging autonomous extracurricular reading. The textual landscape, particularly within the realm of literature, occasionally features intricate vocabulary, potentially exceeding learners’ current linguistic proficiency. Moreover, learners’ engagement can waver when confronted with less captivating topics. Educators acknowledge the need for judiciously circumventing these impediments through adept course design and modality adaptation.

3.2.5 Implications for Language Proficiency and Holistic Skill Development

An overarching underpinning emerges, substantiating the pivotal role of literary, historical, and cultural texts within EFL classrooms. The integration of such texts emerges as a conduit for enhancing learners’ language proficiency, with an emphasis on incremental vocabulary expansion, echoing the tenets advocated by Coady (1993). Authentic texts, ranging from poetry to historical episodes, propel learners towards active engagement, fostering multifaceted language skills encompassing speaking, listening, and writing. Furthermore, a resounding endorsement is extended to the use of chronological historical narratives as organizational frameworks, ensuring a coherent understanding of historical contexts and avoiding disjunction.

In culmination, the cultivation of proficient lifelong readers resonates as a compelling rationale for diverse textual encounters. This encompasses various genres and quantities of texts, facilitating the metamorphosis of learners into discerning readers. The multifaceted dimensions of skilled readership are elucidated through the discourse of Geoff (2004, 1979), underscoring the imperatives of self-monitoring, intertextual awareness, and predictive engagement. These qualities herald a profound interaction with texts, catalyzing a holistic spectrum of cognitive and linguistic competencies.

3.2.6 Diversified Pedagogical Approaches and Concluding Reflections

To augment the instructional landscape, educators advocate a palette of pedagogical approaches. The integration of historical analysis exercises, role-playing simulations, primary resource scrutiny, cinematic engagement, theatrical enactments, report composition, and essay construction is encouraged for nurturing nuanced historical understanding. This diversified modality is envisioned as a potent instrument for enriching learners’ comprehension.

In a denouement that resonates beyond the pedagogical realm, the significance of reading for meaning is resoundingly underscored. The accretion of diverse textual experiences, encompassing various genres and languages, burgeons into a quintessential avenue for cultural, social, and emotional growth. The disposition to decipher texts with discernment, attaining the qualities of an adept reader, emerges as a pivotal crux. This multifaceted skill transcends the boundaries of mere language acquisition, embodying a holistic symbiosis of cognition and culture.

This comprehensive analysis of learners’ and educators’ perspectives signifies a pivotal stride towards the enhancement of EFL pedagogical paradigms, manifesting a nuanced understanding of the intricate interplay between texts, learners, and pedagogical strategies.

Conclusion: Augmenting Reading Proficiency through Literature and Civilization

The intricacies associated with instilling proficient reading skills and cultivating an affinity for sustained reading engagement persist as formidable challenges within the landscape of language pedagogy. However, the realm of reading extends beyond a mere pedagogical endeavor, encompassing realms of self-enjoyment, entertainment, and cognitive enrichment. Notably, literature and civilization texts assume a distinctive role as catalysts for intellectual stimulation and creative inspiration, transcending the conventional corpus of textual material. They emerge as potent tools poised to cultivate and enhance the reading skills of learners, while concurrently serving as reflective mirrors that offer poignant insights into the intricate tapestries of societies. Through these texts, learners are afforded a profound exposure to the nuances of language, thereby navigating a transformative journey of linguistic exploration.

The acquisition and refinement of reading skills have perennially posed formidable challenges within the educational sphere, mirroring the complexities embedded in the broader domain of language acquisition and pedagogy. The quest for a pedagogically sound and efficacious approach to bolstering reading skills, underpinned by a genuine fruitfulness and efficacy, persists as a quintessential conundrum. Moreover, the endeavor to instill an inherent motivation among students to engage in extensive reading remains a crucial undertaking confronted by educators. Indeed, the corpus of literature that one chooses to immerse oneself in wields a profound influence on the contours of thought, effectively shaping cognitive paradigms and individual personas.

In the pursuit of selecting literature and civilization texts, a judicious confluence of considerations is imperative. Cultural, social, and religious underpinnings that underscore the learners’ identities and contexts must be meticulously heeded. Furthermore, the discerning curation of texts commensurate with learners’ linguistic proficiencies stands as an instrumental imperative. It is incumbent upon pedagogues to orchestrate an amalgamation of strategies that extend beyond the confines of the classroom, enabling learners to partake in the gratification of reading beyond the established temporal boundaries. Augmenting this endeavor, a judicious integration of reading comprehension activities serves as a litmus test for evaluating and ascertaining learners’ comprehensive grasp of the textual content.

In summation, the continuum of reading proficiency, underscored by the potent undercurrents of literature and civilization texts, reverberates as a multidimensional construct within the realm of language pedagogy. This journey transcends pedagogical confines, encapsulating realms of intellectual enlightenment and linguistic assimilation. As educators, our prerogative resides not merely in equipping learners with the mechanical rudiments of reading, but in nurturing discerning, reflective readers, endowed with the cognitive prowess to decode, analyze, and synthesize the intricate fabric of texts that shape our cognitive and cultural landscapes.

Akyel, A & Yalçın, E. (1990). “Literature in the EFL class: A study of goal achievement incongruence”. ELT Journal 44(3), 174-180.

Alderson, J.C. (2000). “Assessing reading”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brock, M.N. (1990). “The case for localized literature in the ESL classroom”, English Teaching Forum. XXVIII, (3) 22-25.

Brumfit, C.J & Carter R.A. (1996).“Literature and language teaching” Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. 184-190

Coady, J. (1993), “Research on ESL\ EFL vocabulary acquisition: putting it in context”, in T.Huckin, M.Haynes ,and J.Coady eds. Second language reading and vocabulary learning pp3-23, Norwood: N J Ablex [17].

Collie, J. and Slater, S. (1994). “Literature in the language classroom: A Resource book of ideas and activities”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Daskalovska, N. & Dimova, V. (2012), “Why should literature be used in the language classroom, Procedia. Social and Behavioural Sciences, 46(2012), 1182-1186.

Eskey, D. E., & Grabe, W. (1988). “15 Interactive models for second language reading: perspectives on instruction”. In P. L. Carrell, J. Devine and D. E. Eskey (Eds.), “Interactive approaches to second language reading” (pp. 223-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Geoff, D. (2004). “Improving Learning in Secondary English”, Davis Fulton Publishers Ltd.

Gasemi, P. & Hajizadeh, R. (2011). “Teaching L2 reading comprehension through short story”, International conference on language, Literature and linguistics. LACSIT Press, Singapore, 4(26), PP. 69-73.

Hoey, M. (2001). “Textual interaction: An introduction to written discourse analysis”. New York: Routledge.

Lazar, G. (1993). “Literature and language teaching: A guide for teachers and trainers” Cambridge: Cambridge University press.

Louahala, N. (2017). “The Practice of extensive reading to enhance the learner’s reading skill”. Revue des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algerie, 14, 2017, pp27-34.

Louahala, N. (2017). “Different approaches to teaching civilization”. Revue des Lettres et des Langues, université Amar Telidji , Laguouat, Algerie, 19, 2017, pp1-9.

Maley, A. (1989). Down From The pedestal: literature as resource, In literature and the Llearner: Methodological approaches”. ELT Documents 130, London: Macmillan.

McKay, Sandra. (1996) Literature in the ESL classroom, Literature in the language classroom: A source book of ideas and activities. C.J. Brumfit & R.A. Carter, Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers Series? Ed. Penny Ur 191-198.

McKay,S. (2001). “Literature as content for ESL/EFL teaching English as a second or foreign language”. Boston: Heinle .

Mustafakulovich, R. M. (2019, February) The core of the surface and deep approaches in the fit settings. In: international scientific and practical conference “innovative ideas of modern youth in science and education" (pp. 307-308).

Nuttal, C.(1982) “Teaching reading skills in a foreign language”. 2nd edition, Oxford: Heinemann. London.

Povey, J. (1972). Literature in TESL programs: The language and the culture. H. Allen & R.Campbell (ed.) Teaching English as a second language. New York: Mc. Graw Hill, pp 346-354.

Savvidou, C. (2004), “An integrated approach to teaching literature in the EFL classroom”. The internet TESL journal, 10(12), 1-6.

Nadia Louahala

Djillali Liabes – Université de Sidi Bel Abbès

Nadia Amrane

Djillali Liabes – Université de Sidi Bel Abbès

© Tous droits réservés à l'auteur de l'article