Interpreting Persuasion Techniques in Political Debates

الترجمة الفورية أساليب الإقناع في المناظرة السياسية

Interpréter les techniques de persuasion dans les débats politiques

Souhila Meribai

p. 459-477

Souhila Meribai, « Interpreting Persuasion Techniques in Political Debates », Aleph, Vol 10 (3) | 2023, 459-477.

Souhila Meribai, « Interpreting Persuasion Techniques in Political Debates », Aleph [], Vol 10 (3) | 2023, 01 May 2023, 18 June 2024. URL : https://aleph.edinum.org/8522

Interpreting has emerged along with events live television broadcasting, and went beyond conferences rooms. It is considered as one of the most difficult types of interpreting as the interpreter is not only required to transfer the discourse from the source language to the target language, but he has to take into consideration other factors imposed on him in order to achieve equity between the debate’s counterparts.
In fact, the kind of political debates that has recently been prevalent is that of presidential elections candidates. Therefore, we have selected the last debate between the current American president Biden and his counterpart the previous president Trump in which we will see, to what extent is the interpreter able to keep the acuity of debate? And does the counterpart tactic have an influence on the quality of interpreting especially when the interpreter is under the pressure of time?
The techniques employed by interpreters in translating debates are similar to those used in conference interpreting, but they may not always be sufficient. As a result, interpreters may need to resort to tactics such as omission, delay, filler words, or even abandoning the message due to challenges unique to debates, including impromptu interventions and rapid speech due to limited time.

ظهرت الترجمة الفورية مع وجود النقل التلفزيوني المباشر للأحداث وأصبحت الترجمة الفورية تتعدى حدود قاعات المؤتمرات. وتعد الترجمة الفورية للمناظرة السياسية من الترجمات الصعبة على الترجمان بحكم أنه مطالب ليس بنقل الخطاب من لغته الأصلية إلى لغة الوصول فحسب بل تدخل عوامل أخرى تُفرض على الترجمان من أجل إنصاف طرفي المناظرة.
و لعل أكثر أنواع المناظرة السياسية رواجاً مؤخراً هي المناظرة بين المرشحين للانتخابات الرئاسية واخترنا منها المناضرة الأخيرة بين الرئيس الأمريكي بايدن وترامب حيث سنرى إلى أي حد يمكن للترجمان أن يحافظ على حدة المناظرة و هل يؤثر أسلوب المناظر على جودة الترجمة خاصة وأن الترجمان مضغوط بالوقت .
واتضح لنا أن الاستراتيجيات التي يلجأ إليها التراجمة تتشابه مع تلك الخاصة بالترجمة الفورية للمؤتمرات، والتي قد لا تكون كافية دائمًا. وهذا غالبًا ما يؤدي إلى لجوء المترجمين إلى التجاهل، والتأخير، والاستخدام المفرط للكلمات التعبيرية، أو حتى التخلي عن الرسالة بسبب الصعوبات التي تواجههم والتي لا تحدث في الترجمة الفورية للمؤتمرات، مثل التدخلات المفاجئة والحديث السريع بسبب الوقت المحدود المخصص لكل متحدث.

L’interprétation est apparue avec la diffusion en direct d’événements à la télévision et a dépassé les salles de conférence. Elle est considérée comme l’un des types d’interprétation les plus difficiles, car l’interprète doit non seulement transférer le discours de la langue source à la langue cible, mais il doit également prendre en compte d’autres facteurs imposés pour parvenir à l’équité entre les parties prenantes du débat.
En fait, le type de débat politique qui a récemment été prévalent est celui des candidats aux élections présidentielles. Nous avons donc sélectionné le dernier débat entre le président américain actuel Biden et son homologue le précédent président Trump, dans lequel nous verrons dans quelle mesure l’interprète est capable de maintenir l’acuité du débat? Et est-ce que la tactique du contrepartie a une influence sur la qualité de l’interprétation, surtout lorsque l’interprète est sous pression de temps?
Les techniques utilisées par les interprètes pour traduire les débats sont similaires à celles utilisées dans l’interprétation de conférence, mais elles peuvent ne pas toujours être suffisantes. Par conséquent, les interprètes peuvent devoir recourir à des tactiques telles que l’omission, le retard, les mots de remplissage ou même l’abandon du message en raison des défis uniques aux débats, y compris les interventions impromptues et la parole rapide en raison du temps limité.

Introduction

In political debates, one of the most important aspects is the art of persuasion. Candidates who can effectively persuade voters to their positions have a greater chance of winning the election. Persuasion techniques can be difficult to interpret, especially for those who are not well-versed in the field of politics. However, with some understanding of what to look for, it is possible to interpret these techniques during political debates.

So how can the simultaneous interpreter control the degree of persuasion expressed by the politician in the debate, especially when time is not on their side, and the argument is not their own and they may not even be convinced by what the politician is saying?

In order to answer the question of the problem of this study, we have chosen one of the most prevalent types of political discourse lately, which is the debate between presidential candidates, the US President Biden and Trump, to see to what extent interpreters can maintain the intensity of the debate and how the style of the debaters affects the quality of translation, especially since interpreters are under time pressure.

1. Simultanuous interpretation

Interpretation, Interpretation is crucial in today’s world for several reasons: As the world becomes more connected, the need for effective communication between people of different languages and cultures becomes increasingly important. Interpretation allows for real-time communication and understanding between individuals and groups who would otherwise be unable to communicate.

Interpretation is vital in today’s interconnected world, facilitating communication and understanding between individuals, businesses, governments, and nations. It is the process of transferring oral discourse from the source language to the target language orally.

According to Gile, it is the process of transferring high-level discourse in terms of form and content from the source language to the target language, and completely reformulating it while maintaining the same level in which it was presented (Gile, 1995). In simultaneous interpretation, an interpreter has to translate a speaker as they talk, without any time to stop and listen to the next sentence. Large diplomatic or corporate conferences use simultaneous interpreters all the time. Through teleconferences and other digital technologies, the interpreter does not necessarily have to be in the same room with the person they’re interpreting.

The practice of interpreting differs from that of translation. Joelle states that

“When it comes to interpreting oral speech, we are talking about interpretation… This definition reveals the existence of a fundamental distinction between the nature of translation and the nature of interpreting, although most people believe they are synonymous. For this reason, if the translator is good at translation, the interpreter is not necessarily good at interpreting.” (Joelle, 2010)

This may be due to the fact that interpreting requires a strong memory and greater focus and communication skills, unlike translation, where the translator has tools such as dictionaries and glossaries to aid them, making the work easier. The difficulty of interpreting lies in the fact that it is limited to a specific time, the time in which the original message is spoken.

There are other types of interpretation that we will mention below, but simultaneous interpretation remains the most commonly used in political debates.

1.1 Other types of interpretation

In addition to the simultaneous interpretation which is the most important one there are other types interpretation that vary from one perspective to another, but they can be summarized into four types:

1.1.1 Consecutive interpretation

Consecutive interpretation is the process where the interpreter listens to the original speech, takes notes of the main ideas, and any information that may be difficult to remember such as names and dates in bullet points. Once the speaker finishes talking, the interpreter reformulates the speech, focusing on the main ideas. This is the oldest form of conference translation, and it was used in the League of Nations. It is still used today in the Security Council, as it is considered the most accurate among other types of oral translation, 2011 (

Consecutive interpretation is usually used in important meetings, official visits, and business deals, but it is the slowest form of interpretation since it is the most accurate.

1.1.2. Sight translation

In sight translation, interpreters orally translate a written text they have not seen before, making it a combination of written and oral translation. Sometimes, interpreters are asked to translate a document, making it a complicated process since the written text is usually denser than the oral speech. (Joelle, 2010)

Sight translation relies on reading, understanding, and delivering the translation. The interpreter reads the source language text with their own eyes, then translates it in their mind, and finally delivers it in the target language with their own lips.

And is used on various occasions such as press conferences, seminars, government and administrative lectures, multinational companies, institutions, courts, and others

1.1.3 Whispered interpretation

Whispered interpretation is a branch of oral interpretation, where the interpreter rephrases the spoken text and conveys it orally in the target language. However, it differs from other forms of oral interpretation in that the interpreter stands between the speaker and the listener and is as close as possible to the listener in order to whisper the interpretation directly into their ear after the speaker finishes talking. Whispered interpretation is the same as immediate interpretation, but without the equipment associated with the latter (Gile, 1995, p. 12) whispered interpretation is often used in situations where only a few people need interpretation, such as meetings between heads of state, presidents, or other high-ranking officials. In these settings, the interpreter stands very close to the listener and whispers the interpretation directly into their ear after the speaker finishes talking. This allows for a more intimate and direct form of communication without the need for bulky interpreting equipment.

Figue N° 2 Types of Interpreting

Image 1000020100000280000001E1E8A048005D273D4D.png

1.2 Simultaneous or consecutive interpretation

Live interpretation can be done in one of two ways: consecutively or simultaneously. During consecutive interpretation, an interpreter will not start speaking the translation until after a speaker has finished a sentence or thought.

In small, personal meetings consecutive interpretation can ensure that a conversation still feels natural despite the presence of an interpreter. The medical industry, courts and attorneys like to use consecutive interpretation for this reason. However, consecutive interpretation doubles the time it takes to have a conversation. And in the event of a live television broadcast, that simply won’t cut it.

Simultaneous interpretation is an immediate translation of the speech where interpreters hear the original speech and translate it at the same time. It is

“an immediate process of rephrasing the original text by the simultaneous interpreter upon hearing the speaker’s first words. Despite this, the simultaneous interpreter is not obliged to adhere to the original text. Rather, they are required to extract the overall meaning by understanding the speech, being aware of its sequence and predicting the speaker’s implied intentions through tone of voice, movements, etc. Therefore, they exert great effort in comprehension, analysis, and extraction of apparent and implied meanings while simultaneously producing a new text that is accurate, free from linguistic errors and coherent in the flow of ideas, in order to reach the recipient with the same clarity and safety as the original text” كمال, 2011 : 5).

Simultaneous translation is usually used in international conferences and multilingual meetings that often involve a large number of participants. Simultaneous interpretation is utilized in a wide range of events such as press conferences, seminars, government and administrative lectures, multinational companies, institutions, courts, and more. However, unlike consecutive interpretation, it requires special equipment, including a soundproof booth within the lecture hall that allows the interpreters to both see and hear the speaker via headphones. The interpreters then translate simultaneously through a microphone connected to headphones worn by those who want to hear the translation in the target language. Given the difficulty of translating an entire speech and the pressure that it puts on a single interpreter, two interpreters usually take turns translating. Simultaneous interpretation is typically utilized in international conferences and multilingual meetings, which often involve a large number of participants.

1.3. Interpreting Strategies

An interpreting strategy is a deliberate method used to prevent or solve potential problems in interpreting or to enhance interpreting performance. Because strategies play an important role in interpreting, strategy acquisition is generally regarded as an essential part of interpreting training by practitioners and instructors, although it remains controversial for some researchers. Despite the importance of strategy acquisition in interpreting training, not much research has been conducted on this issue. Most research on interpreting strategies is concerned with expert interpreters’ use of strategies in simultaneous interpreting, which helps us identify specific strategies and probably a criterion of successful strategy acquisition. according to Gile there are some strategies which are common (1995:130):

  • One interpreting strategy involves analysing the context to reconstruct the meaning when certain information is missed or not received by the translator. By analysing the logical context of the speech, the translator can rebuild the lost meaning. This strategy is an extension of the conscious and intentional mental process related to speech conception in normal situations.

  • Another strategy involves waiting and pausing before pronouncing the translation in case of confusion about the meaning. By waiting for the ambiguity to become clear through context, the translator can slow down or use fillers that do not add any information but do not affect the meaning.

  • The substitution strategy involves using a word with a broader meaning when the translator cannot provide an accurate equivalent in the target language. For example, replacing “church” with “place of worship” moves from the specific to the general, avoiding gaps in meaning but resulting in a less precise translated text.

  • Approximate phonetic reproduction is used when the translator pronounces the word as it appears in the source language, usually in technical terminology, assuming that the receiver can understand the technical terms specific to their field.

  • Omission involves intentionally deleting or omitting information when the translator lacks understanding, forgets, or is unable to translate it.

  • If the translator cannot find an exact equivalent in the target language, they may resort to explanation or rephrasing to maintain the meaning and avoid gaps in the translated text.

  • Simplification involves rephrasing a complex part of the text into a less complex form without mentioning all of its elements when the translator is unable to understand it.

Figue N 3 interprétation strategies

Figue N 3 interprétation strategies

2. What is Debate?

Debate, one of the oldest and most influential forms of speech, which has become widespread with the development of science and different perspectives. While the term” debate” is widely recognized, its precise definition can differ depending on the context. In this particular section, we aim to provide an overview of the concept of debate, with a focus on political debate, which is the main topic of our research.

Debate is a formal speaking in delivering arguments to persuade audiences, (D’cruz, 2003:3) states that « debating is about persuasion. Debating is not about rules. The rules provide a framwork within which adjudicators make objective assessements and limit their subjectivity. » It is a scientific argument, dialogue, and discussion where two opposing teams defend or attack a certain issue and exchange different perspectives. We can also say that is a literary or political argument that takes place between two individuals in the presence of an audience, where the two individuals’ debate, discuss, and converse. O’Keefe defines debate as a” structured argumentative process in which two parties defend their positions and attempt to persuade the other party to accept their position.” (2002:253)

The Qatar Debate Center describes it as a form of public speaking and a rhetorical confrontation between two or more speakers on a specific issue within a specific time frame. <https://qatardebate.org>. The origins of debates can be traced back to ancient Greece, where they were considered a crucial part of civic life and were held in open forums. In modern times, debates have become an integral part of political campaigns, academic events, and public discourse, where individuals with differing viewpoints come together to engage in a structured discussion. Debates serve as a platform for individuals to express their opinions, challenge opposing views, and present evidence to support their arguments. They also promote critical thinking, effective communication, and the development of persuasive skills. Debates have evolved with the advent of technology and can now take place online, enabling participation from a global audience.

Mustafa says that” when debating, teams explore arguments for and against a specific proposition.” (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311790921-An-Introduction_to_Academic_Debate). Debates are conducted in an organized atmosphere where speakers from both teams present their arguments and defend them. They can be divided into various types, including political, literary, religious, and scientific debates.

2.1 Political Debates Persuasion skills

2.1.1. Political debates

In recent years, political debates have become increasingly popular, particularly with the growth of democracies and the emergence of new platforms and spaces for expression and discussion. Political debates have a significant impact on political developments, public opinion, and individual political beliefs. We have observed that most channels that cover politics offer rich content through debates, covering a range of topics and issues, particularly those that are currently hotly debated. Furthermore, political debates have become an integral part of presidential campaigns in many countries, and can have a significant impact on the outcome of elections. Candidates now place great importance on participating in debates in order to attract viewers and influence the followers of their opponents.

Figure N° 3 Room Layout A (debate is set up as shown in the diagram below).

Figure N° 3 Room Layout A (debate is set up as shown in the diagram below).

Source: (Hussein, 2016 :8)

2.1.2 Media Debates: Persuasion skills

One of the most common persuasions skills is the use of emotional appeals (Brader.2005:18). Candidates will often attempt to connect emotionally with voters through their speeches or debates. For example, they may share personal stories or paint a picture of a future where their policies help those in need. This technique is effective because it appeals to voters’ emotions rather than just their rationale.

Another skill is framing. (https://www.diplomacy.edu/resource/framing-an-argument). Candidates will often use specific language to frame particular issues in a way that benefits their position. For example, if a candidate wants to increase taxes on the wealthy, they may frame the issue as one of fairness, arguing that the rich have benefited disproportionately from the economy and should pay their fair share. Conversely, opponents may frame the issue as one of punitive taxation, arguing that high taxes on the wealthy will discourage investment and lead to economic stagnation.

Candidates may also employ the use of social proof. This technique involves referencing the popularity of a particular position or policy to lend credibility to their own arguments. For example, a candidate may cite polls that show most Americans support their stance on healthcare reform or climate change.

Another technique is the use of authority figures. Candidates may seek to align themselves with respected or influential individuals to increase their own credibility. For example, a candidate may reference the endorsement of a prominent business leader or celebrity to bolster the legitimacy of their ideas.

Persuasion techniques in debates vary depending on the event and the subject of the debates, but according to a study by الجمعاوي 2019, they include the following:

  • Luring: This involves influencing by focusing on the needs of the viewers and the basic needs of the classes or groups with sensitive issues.

  • Unification: This involves influencing by using social and cultural forces and attempting to reconcile these forces, and using comparisons in an attempt to persuade, whether through representation or defense of the victim. Debaters here need to approach the beliefs of the viewers in order to achieve unification.

  • Polarisation: This is done by ignoring what is required to be proven and attacking the arguments of the other party.

  • Argumentation: This is embodied in the skills of expanding the argument and refuting the arguments of others.

  • Focus and Relief: Here, the debater focuses on the positive points and belittles the negative points that the other party is trying to show, while focusing on the negative aspects of their opponent and ridiculing everything positive about them.

  • Meaning-Building: This aims to create new meanings or change established meanings in society.

  • Psychological Strategy: Here, the debater tries to reach the viewer’s emotions and exploit them to persuade them without using logical arguments.

2.2 The argumentative style in debates

One crucial aspect of debates is the argumentative style adopted by each party, which can vary greatly. However, we can identify some general techniques, as noted by Aljamaoui (2013):

  • Diverse arguments: encompassing realistic, value-based, and authoritative arguments.

  • Multiple questions: where questions are utilized as a tool for argumentation rather than simply facilitating the discussion.

  • Question luring: when debaters try to trap their opponents in a dilemma by posing questions that reveal their weaknesses or can be debated.

  • Steering the conversation: by guiding the debate towards specific points and issues that can direct the audience’s attention to particular topics over others.

The paper will concentrate on commonly used persuasive techniques in political debates for practical examination purposes.

3. Media and interpretation

When talking about simultaneous interpretation and media, it’s inevitable to address the ongoing development of media translation. Media translation has become an essential element of modern global media. Thus, before exploring the topics of debate and political discourse and persuasion strategies within debates, we discussed media simultaneous interpretation.

The demand for interpreters in the media has significantly increased in connection with the development of technologies that enable the broadcasting of audio-visual media throughout the world. In this way, the audience expanded, not only in terms of quantity, but also in terms of linguistic diversity. The language barrier needs to be overcome in press conferences, live broadcasting and streaming, reports, television debates and other formats of audio-visual broadcasting. Compared to other types of interpreting (e.g. community interpreting, conference interpreting etc.), the interpreter finds himself in a significantly different situation. The audience is unlimited and the interpreter does not receive feedback from it, his speech can be recorded and then compared with the original and, last but not least, can be the subject of further rocessing, can be published in print media (Kurz 1995:194). This has led to a particular interest in interpretation, especially in immediate translation, for television and radio broadcasting of various events such as press conferences, athlete and politician interviews, and live programs with analysts, as well as debates in various forms, including political debates, which are the focus of our study.

Interpretation, or live broadcast translation service, is a new development that has emerged due to the need for fast and efficient communication. It poses a significant challenge for translators who must maintain the accuracy and speed of the translation while ensuring that the translated message is faithful to the original. (أبو يوسف و مسعود, 2005 : 20).

The interpreter thus faces the evaluation of television viewers, accustomed to the fluent speech of moderators, without realizing that they often use help of a reading device. They may consider the interpreter as “a failed host” or a “bad speaker”, and his discourse may seem unnatural or artificial to them. They have no idea or do not realize that the work of an interpreter is diametrically opposed to the work of a host, that [an interpreter] uses different procedures and techniques, and mentally processes several processes at once. [..] However, the direct client of an interpreter (if we do not take into account the television in the role of a client, which is represented in the person of a producer, director or playwright) is the audience- TV viewers, who assess (and at best, appreciate) the interpreter’s performance.” (Vertanová et al. 2015 :98)

The origins of interpretation can be traced back to the 1930s, when conference interpreters Hans Jacob and André Kaminker translated Hitler’s speech in Nuremberg live via French radio. However, the study of this phenomenon did not gain significant interest until the 1980s. From this, it can be inferred that interpretation is fundamentally distinct from written translation, and the development of instantaneous translation after World War II was a significant breakthrough for the instant translation we have today. The dominance of media translation in the media industry also highlights the importance of instantaneous media translation, which is becoming increasingly necessary as the world becomes more interconnected and crises become more frequent. Moreover, we learned that political debates differ from conventional debates, as they are subject to specific tactics and techniques used by debaters to prove their point and discredit their opponents, making them more disorderly and aggressive.

4. Applied Study of Models of Political Debate

This study examines the application of models of simultaneous interpretation and persuasion techniques in political debates, using examples of debates between Joe Biden and Donald Trump. Through an analysis of case studies, this study explores the effectiveness and limitations of different models of simultaneous interpretation in conveying the persuasive messages of political actors across language barriers. It also examines the persuasion techniques used by Biden and Trump during the debates and evaluates their effectiveness in influencing public opinion. Overall, this study sheds light on the importance of effective simultaneous interpretation and persuasive techniques in political debates and their impact on the outcome of political contests..

The political debate between Joe Biden and Donald Trump during the 2020 US presidential campaign was highly contentious and marked by a number of heated exchanges between the two candidates. The first debate took place on September 29, 2020, and was moderated by Chris Wallace of Fox News.

During the debate, Biden and Trump clashed on a number of issues, including the Covid-19 pandemic, race relations, and the economy. Trump was criticized for repeatedly interrupting Biden and for making personal attacks against him and his family. Biden, in turn, accused Trump of mishandling the pandemic and failing to condemn white supremacists.

The debate was widely criticized for its chaotic and unproductive nature, with many commentators noting that it was difficult to follow the candidates’ arguments due to the constant interruptions and personal attacks. As a result, the Commission on Presidential Debates announced new rules for the remaining debates, including the use of a mute button to prevent candidates from interrupting each other.

The second debate, scheduled for October 15, was ultimately cancelled after Trump refused to participate in a virtual format following his positive COVID-19 diagnosis. The third and final debate, moderated by Kristen Welker of NBC News, took place on October 22 and was generally considered to be more civil and substantive than the first debate. That’s why we chose the last one for the analysis.

5. Analyses of Exemples

We based our analysis on a YouTube recording of the final political debate between the candidates, which was marked by heated verbal exchanges. The simultaneous interpretation was provided by Al Arabiya channel and CBC Sky. To study the strategies employed by the interpreters, we selected four examples from each segment and analysed them at the translation level, identifying various simultaneous interpretation strategies as discussed by Daniel Gile. Our analysis also explored how the interpreters managed the fast pace of the debate and reacted to the speakers’ emotions, tone of voice, and physical expressions

5.1 Exemple 1 : Reconstruction of the meaning through context

[3 :12] Biden

CBC Skey Channel interpreter

Alarabia channel Interpreter

Compared to what’s going on in Europe, as the New England Medical Journal said, they’re starting from a very low rate. We’re starting from a very high rate.

مقارنة بما يحصل في أوروبا بحسب التقارير

مقارنة بما يحصل في أوروبا كما ذكرت مجلة طبية

The strategy used by Biden here in the debate was argumentation and unification. The context of the discussion was the coronavirus and how Trump failed in his plan to prevent the catastrophe that occurred in America resulting in deaths. Biden tried to persuade the public to defend the American people as victims of the president in order to achieve unity in beliefs. He also used the strategy of argumentation and refuted Trump’s arguments.

However, the translators for Al Arabiya and CBC Sky channels only attempted a literal translation and stuck to the word, so as not to lose the context. But we find that each of them used a strategy of reconstruction of the meaning through context to avoid losing the meaning. Neither of them was able to translate “as the New England Medical Journal said” accurately, as the source was completely unknown. Sky’s translators said مقارنة بما يحصل في أوروبا بحسب التقاريرWe don’t know if these reports are administrative, political, medical, or other.” The translation of Al Arabiya was more accurate than the former, but still somewhat general because we learned the type of reports but did not know the source who said مقارنة بما يحصل في أوروبا كما ذكرت مجلة طبية This may have been due to not hearing the word clearly, and it was not due to speed because we saw that both candidates were speaking slowly and calmly.

Employing this approach facilitated the translators in communicating the intended meaning accurately and the translation was reasonably accurate. Hence, it can be regarded as a valuable tactic that supports translators in their profession. This technique enables us to transition from a precise meaning to a more generalized one, minimizing any potential gaps, even if perfect accuracy is not attainable in such circumstances.

5.2. Exemple 2 : Omission

[8 :10] Biden

CBC Skey Channel interpreter

Alarabia channel Interpreter

And again, I go back to this, he had nothing. He did virtually nothing. And then he gets out of the hospital, and he talks about we’re, this is, ‘Oh, don’t worry. This is all going to be over soon.’ Come on, there’s not another serious scientist in the world who thinks it’s going to be over soon. »

سأعود إلى هذه النقطة لم يقم بأي خطوة بعد ذلك... تكلم على ان هذه الأزمة ستنتهي بعد ذلك ما من عالم يقول أن ذلك صحيحا

رة أخرى أعود لهذه المسألة لم يفعل إي شيء على الإطلاق ثم يذهب إلى المستشفى ويتحدث يقول لا تقلقوا كل شيء سينتهي قريبا لنكن واقعيين لا يوجد عالم جاد يفكر في أن كل شي سينتهي قريبا.

In this part, Biden attempted to mock his opponent’s statements by highlighting their negative aspects, and he used the strategy of Focus and Relief which a very important strategy in any debate This strategy involves focusing on the positive points and downplaying the negative points that the other party is trying to show, while highlighting the negative aspects of the opponent and ridiculing everything positive about them.

But we can see that the interpreter of CBC Skey channel use the technique of omission in this part. the probleme when an interpreter omits words or phrases during translation, it can result in a loss of meaning and clarity in the speaker’s argument. This can also weaken their argument in favor of the other party, as important details may be left out or not properly conveyed. It’s important for interpreters to strive for accuracy and completeness in their translations to ensure that the intended message is effectively communicated. T

Here can be several reasons why an interpreter may omit some words when interpreting. One reason may be due to time constraints, as they may need to convey the message quickly and may not have enough time to interpret every single word. Another reason may be that they are not familiar with a specific word or abbreviation and may struggle to interpret it accurately. In some cases, the speaker may use colloquial or technical language that is difficult to interpret, leading to omissions or inaccuracies in the interpretation. It is important for interpreters to continuously improve their language skills and knowledge of specific fields to minimize the risk of omissions and inaccuracies.

It seems that the translator of CBC Sky Channel was not able to keep up with Biden’s speech, so he deleted or did not translate some of the words correctly. Interpreters, if they miss a word or phrase, can lose focus and have difficulty returning to the context easily, and this seems to be what happened with the channel’s translator. So the interpreter should remain calm and focused, and use their training and experience to quickly catch up and provide an accurate interpretation of the audience. In some cases, if the interpreter is unable to keep up with the pace of the speech, they may request a co-interpreter to assist them. As for the translator of Al Arabiya, he tried his best to translate the words as the speaker told them, but he missed a word which he did not translate. Which com on? The word “come on” in this context means “forget about itدعك من هذا and illustrates the way the candidate speaks. Although deleting it wouldn’t change the meaning, it’s important in political debates like this.

5.3 Exemple 3 Approximate Phonetic Reproduction

[45 :11] Biden

CBC Skey Channel interpreter

Alarabia channel Interpreter

What I’m going to do is pass Obamacare with a public option - become Biden care public option is an option that says that if you, in fact, do not have the wherewithal to be - if you qualify for Medicaid,

ما سأفعله هو أن أمرر قانون رعاية صحية ميسر بخيار عام اذا كنت لا تملك القدرة على حصول مادي كار و ولا تملك القدرة على الحصول على أوباماكار فانت الان بامكانك أن تتسجل في التأمين الصحي

ما أقوم بهو هو تمرير بايدنكار مع اختيار عام يصبح برعاية مايدن كار وهذا الخيار يقول أذا ما لم كنت مؤهل لرعاية صحية ستملك رعاية صحية

The strategy that Biden is trying to demonstrate in this clip is baiting, where he tries to focus on the needs of the American citizen and the most important urgent needs for vulnerable classes. Therefore, he talks about health insurance and what he did during Obama’s era when he was vice president. As for the translation strategy, we find that the translator for CBC Sky channel did not translate the name of the card properly and relied on the strategy of replacing the word with another broader one in meaning. The translator for Al Arabiya channel preferred the technique of approximate sound cloning, which was more appropriate and easier to translate the word “Obamacare” or “Biden Care”. It was clearer even to the Arabic listener because it includes the name of Obama and Biden.

Thus, this strategy is important in instant translation and enables the translator to continue the translation without thinking about the meaning of the phrase, and it is more effective in terms of time, which is not in favor of translators. If we go back to the sentence, it is not one hundred percent correct, but instant translators do not pay much attention to such mistakes as long as the meaning is clear and reaches the audience, especially since the persuasion strategy reaches the viewer, which is the desired outcome.

5.4. Exemple 4 Tone of Voice

[1 ::11 :45 a.m.] Biden

CBC Skey Channel interpreter

Alarabia channel Interpreter

I don’t know where he comes from. I don’t know where he comes up with these numbers. $ 100 trillion? Give me a break. This plan was-- This plan has been endorsed by every major-- every major environmental group and every labor group.

لا أعرف أين يجد هذه الأرقام؟ 100 ترليون دولار ؟ فعلا

لا أعرف من أين يأتي بهذه الأعداد 100 تلريون دولار

Based on our observation of the translated interviews, the choice of CBC Sky channel for translating dialogues is generally considered successful, because the chosen voice translator from CBC Sky provides a higher level of performance compared to the translator of Al-Arabiya channel. The latter did not show any influence or emotions during the dialogues, which is undesirable, as translators should express the feelings of the characters they are translating for, as dubbing actors do, and not just limit themselves to translating words. The most important task for translators is to convey the true meaning of the dialogues to achieve the speaker’s intended goal. Therefore, there should be a separate translator for each speaker, and preferably, the translator should be the interviewer or debater to ensure credibility and high quality of translation.

The tone of voice of an interpreter is important for several reasons. First, it can convey the speaker’s emotions and attitudes, such as their level of excitement or frustration. This information can help the interpreter convey the speaker’s intended meaning accurately.

Then, the tone of voice can also help the interpreter distinguish between different speakers or parts of the speech, making it easier to accurately represent the conversation.

It can also influence the interpreter’s own emotional state and how they interpret the speech. For example, a calm and measured tone may help the interpreter remain focused and objective, while a heated or emotional tone may make it more challenging to stay neutral and impartial.

Overall, the tone of voice is an essential factor for interpreters to consider when conveying meaning accurately and effectively.

Conclusion

Interpreters use the same strategies in translating debates as they do in conference interpreting, but these strategies may not always be adequate. This can cause interpreters to resort to techniques like omission, delay, filler words, or even abandoning the message due to obstacles unique to debates, such as spontaneous interventions and fast speech due to time constraints.

We found that interpreters frequently use omission to keep up with the pace of the speaker and compensate for any delays, especially when hesitating during interpretation. To maintain the impact of the debate on the audience’s decision-making, interpreters try to convey emotional and physical expressions through their voice. However, this complicates their task and may lead to omission and filler words that undermine the meaning of the message.

To avoid this, interpreters should stay composed as long as the audience can hear and see the speaker to convey the meaning and essence of the debate. We concluded that the debating style significantly impacts the quality of interpretation and can either facilitate or complicate the interpreter’s task, especially with spontaneous interventions, fast speech, or unorganized thoughts that hinder the interpreter’s ability to build on the context or predict the speaker’s words, resulting in delays and attempts to fill gaps in meaning.

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Figue N 3 interprétation strategies

Figue N 3 interprétation strategies

Figure N° 3 Room Layout A (debate is set up as shown in the diagram below).

Figure N° 3 Room Layout A (debate is set up as shown in the diagram below).

Source: (Hussein, 2016 :8)

Souhila Meribai

Algiers 2 الجزائر

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