Style Sheet and Typographic Guidelines

Feuille de style et charte typographique
ورقة الأنماط

« Style Sheet and Typographic Guidelines », Aleph [], 10 January 2024, 03 March 2024. URL : https://aleph.edinum.org/10469

Articles in French must follow the rules outlined below. For specific questions not addressed in this document, we invite authors to consult Le Lexique des règles typographiques en usage à l’Imprimerie nationale (Paris, Imprimerie nationale, 2002).

Authors should choose the MLA or APA method for presenting references in the body of the text, in notes, and in the bibliography.

For proper use of bibliographic source syntax, authors can refer to the tutorial available at this address: https://mondiapason.ca/fichiers/OutilBibliographique/ or consult the MLA Handbook or the "Purdue Online Writing Lab" website: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/11/.

For articles written in English, refer to the English version. Other languages should adhere to French conventions.

Submitted articles must necessarily have a style sheet attached to the text for automated processing. The model under which the article should be submitted is the one adopted by revues.org.

After acceptance, the journal will request authors to apply a style sheet for a print publication and submit the copy in Word format via email to the following address: revue.aleph@univ-alger2.dz.

Style Sheet

Authors who are not familiar with the formatting techniques of a scientific text can attend various free training sessions organized by the journal in person at the University of Algiers 2 and in different universities that request their members for training. Online sessions are also available upon registration by writing to the journal: revue.aleph@univ-alger2.dz. Those who cannot do so may, as a last resort, contact an independent service provider for the styling of journals and books at the following addresses:

  • Algeria and the rest of the world: Presses Universitaires Maghrébines Pumag: pumag.editions@gmail.com

  • France and the rest of the world: Contact information for independent service providers on the website of the Maison des Revues.

Document Formatting

Authors will propose a short title for their article (maximum 4 words) for the running title.

Articles submitted to Aleph must include the following elements:

  • Title (in the language of the article) + in English, French, and Arabic

  • Author, affiliation (university)

  • Abstract and keywords in the language of the article

  • Abstract and keywords in French separated by commas

  • Abstract and keywords in English separated by commas

  • In Arabic: Abstract and keywords separated by commas

  • Text with footnotes if applicable

  • Cited sources

  • Appendix if applicable

Every contribution must be written in Times New Roman, font size 12, with continuous and justified spacing. Paragraphs are indicated by a line break, without indentation or paragraph spacing. Margins are 2.5 cm for the entire document.

In addition, a specific style for each type of paragraph must be applied: "Normal" for the body of the text, "Bibliography" for the bibliography, "Appendix" for appendices, "Title 1," "Title 2," etc. for subheadings, "Quotation" for quotes.

Limit the levels to the following, clearly indicated in the text:

  • Article title: Times New Roman 16, centered

  • Level 1 title: Times New Roman 14, bold

  • Level 2 title: Times New Roman 13, bold

  • Level 3 title: Times New Roman 13, bold

  • Text: Times New Roman 12

  • Quotations: Times New Roman 11, left indentation

  • Footnotes: Times New Roman 10

The editorial committee of each issue conducts an initial evaluation and forwards to experts only those articles that adhere to the typographic guidelines and have an attached style sheet for automated processing.

Citations

Citations adhere to the typographic rules of the language used in the quotation.

Short quotations (less than three lines) are introduced in the body of the text with French or angle quotes. Angle quotes are reserved for secondary quotes. Ellipses indicating omissions are placed in square brackets: […]. Additions, modifications, or comments are also enclosed in square brackets. Exclamation and question marks are integrated into the quotation before the closing quote only if they are inseparable; in this case, the reference in parentheses is followed by a period. Other punctuation marks are placed outside the quotation, after the reference in parentheses.

Emerson's work remains, for many, "le lieu géométrique des fictions du Nouveau Monde" (Pétillon 15).
Dorothea Brooke responds to her sister, "What a wonderful little almanac you are, Celia!" (Eliot 7).

Long quotations (three lines or more) are separated from the body of the text, preceded and followed by a line break, set in 10-point font, without quotation marks. The final punctuation is then placed before the reference.

"Nantucket! Take out your map and look at it. See what a real corner of the world it occupies, how it stands there, away off shore, more lonely than the Eddystone lighthouse. Look at it—a mere hillock, and elbow of sand; all beach, without a background" (Melville 69).

Traditional Method (References in Footnotes)

The reference in the bibliography Basic syntax for a non-periodical work Titles and subtitles should be in italics, except for unpublished documents (theses, dissertations, reports...). If there is a subtitle, it is separated from the title by a colon:

LAST NAME, First Name. Title: Subtitle. Secondary authors. Edition statement. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication. (Collection, Series). Physical description. Other notes.
ECO, Umberto. Le Signe: histoire et analyse d'un concept. Translated by Jean-Marie Klinkenberg. Paris: Librairie Générale Française, 1992. (Collection Le livre de poche; Biblio essais, no. 4159). 282 p. (Original Italian edition: Milan, ISEDI, 1973).

For a standalone volume from a work that has several volumes, add, after the general title of the work, the volume number and its possible title:

LAST NAME, First Name. General Title: Subtitle. Volume numbering, Volume Title. Secondary authors. Edition statement. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication. (Collection, series). Physical description. Other notes.
RICŒUR, Paul. Temps et récit. Tome 2, Le Temps raconté. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1985. (Collection L'ordre philosophique). 432 p.

For a reprint, add the first publication date in brackets after the title (main title or, if applicable, the volume title):

LAST NAME, First Name. Title: Subtitle [First publication date]. Secondary authors. Edition statement. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication. (Collection, Series). Physical description. Other notes.
HUGO, Victor. Le Dernier Jour d'un condamné [1829]. Paris: Le Livre de Poche, 1990. 320 p.

Physical description: number of pages, or number of volumes if referring to the entire work in multiple volumes. If applicable, add the number of illustrations or additional elements (plates, exercise collection, etc.):

BENVENISTE, Émile. Problèmes de linguistique générale. Paris: Gallimard, 1966-1974. (Collection Bibliothèque des sciences humaines). 2 volumes. ADAM, Jean-Michel. Le Texte narratif: précis d’analyse textuelle. Paris: Éditions Fernand Nathan, 1985. (Collection Nathan-Université). 285 p., with application work and their corrections. TOULIER, Bernard. Architecture et patrimoine du XXe siècle en France. Paris: Éditions du Patrimoine, 2000. 360 pages, 530 ill.

Book with Multiple Authors

If the work mentions a scientific editor (or several), list them as the author(s) by adding the notation "(dir.)" (or "(ed.)" in English):

LAST NAME, First Name (dir.). Title: Subtitle [First publication date]. Secondary authors. Edition statement. Place: Publisher, year. (Collection, Series). Physical description. Other notes.

GELAS Bruno, MICOLET Hervé (dir.). Deleuze et les écrivains: littérature et philosophie. Nantes: Éditions Cécile Defaut, 2007. 610 p.

In the absence of scientific direction, if authors are displayed on the title page or the front cover, list the first three authors, followed by "et al." if there are more than three:

The work has up to 3 authors: Author1, Author2, and Author3. GREIMAS Algirdas Julien and Joseph COURTÈS. Sémiotique: dictionnaire raisonné de la théorie du langage. Translated from Spanish by Jamón Martiñez. Paris: Hachette, 1979. (Les lettres Nouvelles). 423 p.

The work has more than 3 authors: Author1, Author2, Author3, and al. or Author1, and al. DUCROT Oswald et al. Les mots du discours. Paris: Minuit, 1980. (Collection Le sens commun). 243 p.

But if the title page and the front cover do not mention any author or scientific editor, do not include an author: the reference starts directly with the title.

Particularities of Periodical References

In the part of the reference describing the periodical: the order of zones is different, the place of publication is optional, the number of pages is not indicated, and a principal author should never be mentioned for the periodical itself. Thus, when a journal issue mentions a scientific editor, include them as a secondary author:

[...] Title of the periodical. Year and possible period, numbering of the issue, Title of the issue. Secondary authors. Edition statement. Place of publication: Publisher. Other notes. [...]

[...] Langue française. February 2003, no. 138, Temps et co(n)texte. Edited by Jacques Brès. Larousse.

ARTICLE in a Collective Work or Journal

Author(s) of the article. "Title of the article," in the reference of the work or journal, without the number of pages. Pages start-end.

DUCROT, Oswald. "Analyses pragmatiques." In Communications. 1980, no. 32, Les actes de discours. Edited by François Récanati. Paris: Seuil. Pages 11-60. CORGER, Jean-Claude. "Petite phénoménologie de la locomotion." In MICOLET Hervé (dir.). Lire Réda. Lyon: PUL, 1994. (Collection Lire). Pages 15-29. HAMON, Philippe. "Pour un statut sémiologique du personnage." In Littérature. May 1972, no. 6, Lectures. Larousse. Pages 86-110.

Method 1st-Element-Date (or Author-Date)

The reference in the bibliography

The main difference with the footnotes reference method is that the publication date is placed immediately after the Author zone. Note that if the bibliography includes multiple publications in the same year for the same author, differentiate them by adding a lowercase letter after the year (1986a, 1986b…).

Basic syntax for a non-periodical work

Titles and subtitles should be in italics, except for unpublished documents (theses, dissertations, reports…). If there is a subtitle, separate it from the title with a colon:

LAST NAME, First Name. Year of publication. Title: Subtitle. Secondary authors. Edition statement. Place of publication: Publisher. (Collection, Series). Physical description. Other notes.

ECO, Umberto. 1992. Le Signe: histoire et analyse d'un concept. Translated by Jean-Marie Klinkenberg. Paris: Librairie Générale Française. (Coll. Le livre de poche; Biblio essais, n° 4159). 282 p. (Original Italian edition: Milan, ISEDI, 1973).

For a standalone volume from a work that has several, add, after the general title of the work, the volume number and its possible title:

LAST NAME, First Name. Year of publication. General Title: Subtitle. Volume numbering, Volume Title. Secondary authors. Edition statement. Place of publication: Publisher. (Collection, Series). Physical description. Other notes.

RICŒUR, Paul. 1985. Temps et récit. Tome 2, Le Temps raconté. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. (Coll. L'ordre philosophique). 432 p.

For a reprint, indicate the first publication date in brackets instead of the year of publication, which is placed later (after the publisher, in the syntax adopted here):

LAST NAME, First Name. [First publication date]. Title: Subtitle. Secondary authors. Edition statement. Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication. (Collection, Series). Physical description. Other notes.

HUGO, Victor. [1829]. Le Dernier Jour d'un condamné. Paris: Le Livre de Poche, 1990. 320 p.

Physical description: the number of pages or the number of volumes if referring to the entire work in multiple volumes. If applicable, add the number of illustrations or additional elements (plates, exercise collection, etc.):

BENVENISTE, Émile. 1966-1974. Problèmes de linguistique générale. Paris: Gallimard. (Coll. Bibliothèque des sciences humaines). 2 volumes.
ADAM, Jean-Michel. 1985. Le Texte narratif: précis d’analyse textuelle. Paris: Éditions Fernand Nathan. (Coll. Nathan-Université). 285 p., with application work and their corrections.
TOULIER, Bernard. 2000.
Architecture et patrimoine du XXe siècle en France. Paris: Éditions du Patrimoine. 360 pages, 530 ill.

Book with Multiple Authors

If the work mentions a scientific editor (or several), list them as the author(s) by adding the notation “(dir.)” (or “(ed.)” in English):

LAST NAME, First Name (dir.). Year. Title: Subtitle [First publication date]. Secondary authors. Edition statement. Place: Publisher. (Collection, Series). Physical description. Other notes.

GELAS Bruno, MICOLET Hervé (dir.). 2007. Deleuze et les écrivains : littérature et philosophie. Nantes: Éditions Cécile Defaut. 610 p.

In the absence of scientific direction, if authors are displayed on the title page or the front cover, list the first three authors, followed by “et al.” if there are more than three:

The work has up to 3 authors: Author1, Author2, and Author3. GREIMAS Algirdas Julien and Joseph COURTÈS. 1979. Sémiotique : dictionnaire raisonné de la théorie du langage. Translated from Spanish by Jamón Martiñez. Paris: Hachette. (Les lettres Nouvelles). 423 p.

The work has more than 3 authors: Author1, Author2, Author3, and al. or Author1, and al. DUCROT Oswald et al. 1980. Les mots du discours. Paris: Minuit. (Coll. Le sens commun). 243 p.

But if the title page and the front cover do not mention any author or scientific editor, do not include an author: the reference starts directly with the title.

Particularities of Periodical References

In the part of the reference describing the periodical: the order of zones is different, the place of publication is optional, the number of pages is not indicated, and a principal author should never be mentioned for the periodical itself. Thus, when a journal issue mentions a scientific editor, treat them as a secondary author:

[……] Title of the periodical. Possible period, numbering of the issue, Title of the issue. Secondary authors. Place: Publisher. Other notes. [……]

Note: as this pattern only includes the part of the reference describing the periodical, the year of publication is not included; it will be placed right after the name of the author of the contribution. However, it can be repeated when there is a period to avoid odd effects (as in the example of HAMON below).

ARTICLE in a Collective Work or Journal

Author(s) of the article. Year. “Title of the article,” in the reference of the work or journal, without the number of pages. Pages start-end.

CORGER, Jean-Claude. 1994b. “Petite phénoménologie de la locomotion.” In MICOLET Hervé (dir.). Lire Réda. Lyon: PUL. (Coll. Lire). Pages 15-29. DUCROT, Oswald. 1980. “Analyses pragmatiques.” In Communications. No. 32, Les Actes de discours. Directed by François Récanati. Paris: Seuil. Pages 11-60. HAMON, Philippe. 1972. “Pour un statut sémiologique du personnage.” In Littérature. May 1972, no. 6, Lectures. Larousse. Pages 86-110.

Note: to abbreviate the mention of “pages,” write “p.” (and not “pp.” which is incorrect).

In-Text Citations

When citing an author in the text, simply put, in parentheses, their name followed by the year of publication – and of course, the page(s) where the cited passage is found:

The name-date couple directly refers to the reference given in the bibliography – hence the addition of a letter after the date when there are two works by the same author published in the same year, to avoid ambiguity.

Thus, to cite a passage from Claude Corgé's article given as an example above: “(quoted text)” (Corgé 1994b, p. 22) or: “(quoted text)” (Corgé 1994b: 22)

Depending on the context, however, you can omit the author's name to lighten the sentence: As pointed out by Claude Corgé (1994b, p. 26), it is primarily through writing that Réda...

Typography Elements

Italics

Words in a foreign language are italicized when used in the text (but quotes in a foreign language are not italicized). Italicize titles of books, periodicals, tables, etc. The same applies to the names of ships, land or air vehicles, legal decisions, and laws. However, names of associations or organizations are written in roman.

Examples: a priori Aleph. Langues, médias et sociétés the Organization of the United Nations the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Italic can be used to emphasize a particular passage. In this case, specify in a note with the following mention: I emphasize.

Ensure to apply italics only to the relevant words and the spaces between them, NOT to the spaces preceding or following, as it would result in a lack of space on the screen. The same applies to bold, underline, or superscript text.

Capital Letters

The use of capital letters is reserved for the following cases:

  • Proper names and first names

  • Names of planets, geographical names (Mars, West Africa, New Zealand)

  • Names of peoples, while corresponding adjectives retain the initial lowercase

  • Names of cardinal points designating a part of a country (North America but the north wind)

  • Names of companies or trademarks, or organizations with a unique character (the Court of Appeal, the Walmart group)

  • First word of the full name of an institution or organization (National Center for Scientific Research, National Library of France, Supreme Court, Republican Party)

  • Saint-Louis: the celebration or the city, but saint Louis: the character

  • President X, Secretary of State for War, Minister of the Interior, General Y (without capital at the first word)

  • The University (the institution or all the universities in a country); but Harvard University, University of Paris-IV, University of Algiers 2: without capital

  • In botany and zoology: names of classes, orders, families, and genera.

Numbers

Write in roman numerals, uppercase: political regimes, main divisions of works (volumes, volumes, books, parts, acts, songs, plates or illustrations). Examples: the Fifth Republic, the XIXth Olympic Games Volume II, Volume IV, Act I, Plate V

Write in roman numerals, small capitals: centuries, secondary divisions of works (chapters, stanzas, scenes, preface pages, forewords, introductions). Examples: the nineteenth century Introduction, vii-xix

Punctuation

  • Period: no space before, space after.

  • Semicolon: space before, space after.

  • Exclamation point: space before, space after.

  • Question mark: space before, space after.

  • Colon: space before, space after.

  • Ellipsis: no space before, space after. Ellipses are never followed by a period.

  • Quotation marks: use "French quotes" with spaces after the opening quote and before the closing quote. For second-level quotes, use "English quotes" without internal spaces. If terms in quotes are preceded by an apostrophe, follow the apostrophe with a non-breaking space (CTRL + shift + space): e.g., the "divine love."

  • Parentheses: no internal spaces.

  • Brackets: no internal spaces.

  • Hyphen: no spaces if the hyphen joins two simple words (Jan-Feb), spaces before and after if it joins complex elements (Jan. 12 - Feb. 15).

  • Dash: the en dash is used with spaces inside and spaces outside. Example: They are filmed like dancers on suspended beams – reminiscent of Clarke's early dance films – and the photograph magnifies their black silhouette against the backdrop of the landscape.

Use a non-breaking space (CTRL + shift + space) between elements that should not be separated. Examples: 30°December F.°Scott Fitzgerald vol.°39, no.°2 p.°12-41

There should be no periods at the end of article titles and their various sections.

Acronyms

Acronyms are written in uppercase, without spaces and without abbreviation points. Note: take care to expand the acronym in parentheses on its first occurrence. Examples: NAACP ANSWER

Unlike acronyms, multiple initials of people's names are separated by dots without spaces. Example: W.E.B. Du Bois

Titles

For works in French, if the title does not begin with a definite article, only the first word is capitalized: Tendre est la nuit, Loin du paradis, Tandis que j’agonise, Sur la route, À l’ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs.

If the title begins with a definite article, the first noun takes a capital letter, as do any adjectives preceding it: La Divine Comédie, La Modification, Les Aventures de Tom Sawyer.

Titles of articles or chapters are in quotation marks, with only the first word capitalized: “L’encre de la blancheur,” “Le principe de la représentation.”

English titles take a capital letter for the first word and all nouns, adjectives, and verbs: The Scarlet Letter, Alice in Wonderland, Everything Is Illuminated, A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius, The Last of the Mohicans, “My Kinsman, Major Molineux.”

Illustrations and Images

Preferably use the JPEG format for images. The author of the article is responsible for ensuring that the images are copyright-free or obtaining the right (and specifying it in the list of illustrations). Please insert the illustrations in the text where they should appear and also send them separately as JPEG files with the best possible resolution.

Verification

Please check spacing using the find/replace function: no space at the beginning of a paragraph, no double spaces in the body of the text. The use of the built-in spell checker helps avoid some typos, although it is not always necessary to follow all recommendations literally.

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