An Empirical Exploration of Social and Psychological Care in Algerian Kindergartens: A Field Study in the City of Saida

استكشاف تجريبي للرعاية الاجتماعية والنفسية في رياض الأطفال الجزائرية : دراسة ميدانية في مدينة سعيدة

Exploration empirique de la prise en charge sociale et psychologique dans les jardins d’enfants algériens : Une étude de terrain dans la ville de Saida

Helima Rezaiguia Zina Benhacene

p. 115-131

Helima Rezaiguia Zina Benhacene, « An Empirical Exploration of Social and Psychological Care in Algerian Kindergartens: A Field Study in the City of Saida », Aleph, Vol 10 (4-1) | 2023, 115-131.

Helima Rezaiguia Zina Benhacene, « An Empirical Exploration of Social and Psychological Care in Algerian Kindergartens: A Field Study in the City of Saida », Aleph [], Vol 10 (4-1) | 2023, 23 September 2023, 18 June 2024. URL : https://aleph.edinum.org/9766

The study aimed to investigate the role of kindergartens in facilitating the psychological and social development of children, the existing programs and strategies for achieving this goal, and the contributions of kindergarten educators in ensuring proper child development. Utilizing a descriptive approach and content analysis method, the study analyzed and interpreted various data and dimensions related to the role of kindergartens in providing social and psychological care to children. The results demonstrated that kindergartens play an effective role in promoting the psychological and social development of children through the availability of appropriate means and programs for this purpose. Furthermore, kindergarten educators significantly contribute to ensuring psychological and social care, affirming the achievement of the study’s primary objective, which is that kindergartens have a role in fostering proper child development.


L’étude visait à révéler le rôle des jardins d’enfants dans le développement psychologique et social de l’enfant, la réalité des programmes et des moyens développés pour y parvenir, et le rôle des nounous dans la réalisation de la bonne éducation de l’enfant. Une approche descriptive utilisant la méthode d’analyse du contenu a été employée pour analyser et interpréter diverses données et dimensions liées au rôle des jardins d’enfants dans la fourniture de soins sociaux et psychologiques aux enfants. Les résultats ont montré que les jardins d’enfants jouent un rôle efficace dans la promotion du développement psychologique et social des enfants grâce à la disponibilité de moyens et de programmes appropriés à cet effet. De plus, les éducateurs de maternelle contribuent de manière significative à garantir des soins psychologiques et sociaux, confirmant la réalisation de l’objectif principal de l’étude, à savoir que les jardins d’enfants ont un rôle à jouer dans la promotion du bon développement de l’enfant.

تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى الكشف عن دور رياض الأطفال في تحقيق النمو النفسي والاجتماعي للأطفال، وتسليط الضوء على واقع البرامج والوسائل المستخدمة لتحقيق هذا الهدف، بالإضافة إلى دور المربيات في تأمين بيئة تربوية سليمة لتطوير الأطفال. تم استخدام منهج وصفي بالاعتماد على أسلوب تحليل المحتوى لتحليل وتفسير البيانات والجوانب المتعلقة بدور رياض الأطفال في تقديم الرعاية الاجتماعية والنفسية للأطفال. أظهرت النتائج، بعد التحليل والتفسير، أن رياض الأطفال تلعب دورًا فعّالًا في تعزيز النمو النفسي والاجتماعي للأطفال من خلال توفير وسائل وبرامج مناسبة لتحقيق هذا الهدف، وأن للمربيات دورًا مهمًا في توفير الرعاية النفسية والاجتماعية للأطفال. وهذا يؤكد على تحقيق الهدف الرئيسي للدراسة، والذي يتمثل في أن رياض الأطفال تلعب دورًا مهمًا في تحقيق التنشئة السليمة للأطفال.

Introduction

Kindergartens represent a pivotal stage in the process of child socialization, encompassing a plethora of programs and methodologies, with a central role played by caregivers. Within this context, kindergartens are designed to cater to the multifaceted needs of children, particularly their social and psychological development. This study endeavors to unveil the intricate dimensions of social and psychological care provided by Algerian kindergartens, shedding light on the programs and methodologies employed by caregivers and their consequential impact on the holistic upbringing of kindergarten children.

The concept of kindergarten evolved gradually in Europe during the 19th century, thanks to the pioneering efforts of individuals such as Friedrich Fröbel. These early visionaries translated their ideas into tangible institutions, emphasizing the malleability of a child’s personality during the pre-school years. According to Fröbel, nature should serve as the nurturing ground for children, facilitating their physical, mental, and emotional growth, as well as their comprehension of the natural laws governing living organisms. Moreover, the principle of play assumes a fundamental role, acting as a vehicle for sensory refinement and development. Kindergartens also prioritize fostering cooperation and social integration among children, recognizing the vital importance of peer interactions (Barakat, 1991, p. 21).

In Algeria, kindergartens were initially established during the period of French colonization, primarily to serve the needs of the colonial population. These institutions, originally overseen by the White Sisters, continued to operate under their supervision until 1976. Subsequently, the People’s Municipal Council assumed control over these kindergartens. In 1985, legal criteria were established to govern kindergarten enrollment, encompassing considerations such as a mother’s employment in the education field or other professions and the circumstances of mothers who, due to health or other reasons, faced difficulties in raising their children. With the advent of technology and the rising number of working mothers, the proliferation of kindergartens became increasingly evident (Malika, 1989, p. 13).

Recent years have witnessed a surge in demand for kindergartens, with both educators and parents recognizing the significance of early childhood care and education. While motivations for this increased interest vary, society’s growing awareness of the critical importance of child development during these formative years is a predominant factor. Against this backdrop, it becomes imperative to assess the effectiveness of social and psychological care within the context of the expanding kindergarten landscape.

In pursuit of solutions to this imperative, the researcher formulated the following hypotheses:

  1. There exists a statistically significant relationship between the social care provided in kindergartens and the social development of children.

  2. There exists a statistically significant relationship between the psychological care provided in kindergartens and the psychological development of children.

This study seeks to unveil the current landscape of kindergartens in the Saida region of Algeria, focusing on the methods employed to provide social and psychological care for children. It aims to explore the role of programs and activities in meeting the diverse needs of children, including their social, psychological, health, and mental well-being. Additionally, the study examines the contributions of caregivers in addressing the various requirements of children and delves into the aspirations of kindergarten personnel to enhance their performance for the optimal satisfaction of children’s needs.

To achieve these objectives, the study adopts a descriptive approach, involving the analysis and interpretation of data collected through standardized interviews conducted with 15 kindergarten educators in Saida. This research endeavor aims to shed light on the nuanced intricacies of social and psychological care in Algerian kindergartens, offering insights that can inform and improve early childhood education practices.

1. Study concepts

1.1 Social welfare

1.1.1 The Concept of Social Welfare in Idiomatic Terms

Social welfare, as articulated by Fred Lander, refers to a structured system comprising services and provisions designed to assist individuals and communities in attaining and maintaining appropriate standards of health and well-being. Moreover, it aims to fortify personal and social relationships, thereby enabling individuals to harness their capacities and enhance their quality of life in accordance with their unique needs and the demands of their communities (Maher, 2010, p. 15).

1.1.2 Procedural concept of social welfare

The procedural aspect of social welfare pertains to the constellation of services and programs meticulously crafted to cater to the psychological and social needs of kindergarten children. These initiatives are meticulously orchestrated, both scientifically and practically, with the objective of nurturing the holistic development of children within the kindergarten environment.

1.2 Psychological care

1.2.1 The concept of psychological care in idiomatic terms

Psychological care embodies the state of psychological well-being characterized by emotional and behavioral equilibrium in an individual. This state, from the perspective of positive psychology or the holistic framework of mental health, encompasses an individual’s capacity to derive enjoyment from life and to strike a harmonious balance between life’s demands and activities, thus fostering psychological resilience (Mohamed et al., 1984, p. 53).

In accordance with the World Health Organization’s perspective, psychological care encompasses a life marked by well-being, independence, meritocracy, intergenerational self-efficacy, and the realization of an individual’s intellectual and emotional potential. The World Health Organization further elucidates that individual well-being encompasses the ability to actualize one’s potential, navigate the pressures of daily life, contribute to society, and engender personal growth (Kitchener & Jorm, 2002, p. 5).

1.2.2 The procedural concept of psychological care

The procedural facet of psychological care encompasses a repertoire of activities and interventions that are imperative for delivering comprehensive psychological and mental care to kindergarten children, addressing the gamut of psychological challenges and exigencies they may encounter.

1.3 Social and psychological development of the child

1.3.1 The concept of social development of the child in idiomatic terms

The social development of a child denotes the transformative processes that transpire within the child’s interpersonal relationships, leading to a gradual expansion of their social network beyond immediate family ties to encompass external social relationships, including peer interactions. This development closely interrelates with physical, cognitive, and emotional development, as its culmination contributes significantly to the broadening of an individual’s social horizons (Children’s Social Development, 2021).

1.3.2 The concept of psychological development of the child in idiomatic terms

Psychological development encompasses the cognitive, emotional, intellectual, and social progress in human beings, spanning from early childhood through adolescence. It encompasses the child’s growth and development across sensory awareness, motor skills, social competencies, and linguistic aptitude. This development is substantially influenced by genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and cognitive proficiencies inherent to the child (Children’s Social Development, 2021).

1.3.3 The procedural concept of the child’s social and psychological development

Within the scope of this study, the procedural conception of a child’s social and psychological development encapsulates the transformations experienced by the child through a comprehensive array of educational and recreational programs and activities. These initiatives are meticulously devised to foster enhanced psychological and social well-being in the child.

1.4 Kindergarten

1.4.1 The concept of kindergarten in idiomatic terms

Kindergarten is delineated as a pre-school program tailored for early childhood education, blending educational and play-based elements. This program is administered by a cadre of professionally qualified instructors, and it caters to children typically ranging in age from three to five years. The core mission of kindergarten is to cultivate and augment the child’s skills and educational foundations (Mohammed, 2004, p. 14).

1.4.2 The procedural concept of kindergarten

The procedural construct of kindergarten pertains to institutions designed to admit children within the age range of three to five years. These institutions are dedicated to providing psychological and social care to enrolled children through structured curricula and methodologies delivered by caregivers who possess specialized training in the field.

2. The educator and the scientific curricula adopted in kindergarten

2.1 The most important roles of kindergarten educators

2.1.1 The role of the educator in planning

One of the pivotal responsibilities of a kindergarten educator encompasses strategic planning, encompassing the formulation of appropriate educational objectives consonant with the developmental stage of the children. Moreover, this planning integrates the nuances of the social and economic milieu within the kindergarten, thereby culminating in a well-rounded curriculum that aligns with programmatic goals. Additionally, the educator must devise activities tailored to the attainment of these objectives, while also catering to the individualized needs of each child through astute observation. This necessitates that kindergarten educators possess the knowledge and principles requisite for designing kindergarten programs.

2.1.2 The role of the educator in diagnosing children’s abilities

Effectively diagnosing the abilities and developmental progress of individual children is a crucial facet of the educator’s role. This is achieved through vigilant monitoring and assessment of children’s growth and development. A comprehensive understanding of observation techniques and developmental milestones is paramount. Consequently, rigorous training and professional development are essential to enhance the educator’s ability to discern and address the difficulties that children may encounter.

2.1.3 The role of the educator as a manager and facilitator of learning and teaching processes

Kindergarten education revolves around the child’s engagement in self-initiated activities, characterized by discovery, play, role-playing, practical experiences, and exploration of the surrounding environment. In realizing these educational objectives, educators must :

  • Engage children in the process of planning educational activities, stimulating their initiative and encouraging them to contribute ideas that foster a diverse range of interests and skills.

  • Foster a dynamic learning environment by constantly revitalizing the educational atmosphere in the activity room, promoting collaborative teamwork, and establishing dedicated periods for both group and individual work (Rateb & Reda, 2013, p. 36).

2.1.4 The role of the educator as a psychological and educational guide

Kindergarten educators play a pivotal role in identifying the unique abilities, interests, and inclinations of each child. They channel and guide these energies, allowing for the tailored selection of activities, methods, and strategies that align with the distinctive characteristics exhibited by each child. Moreover, educators are tasked with identifying and addressing any psychological challenges faced by the children under their care.

2.1.5 The role of the educator in fostering human relations

Nurturing positive relationships is a core responsibility of kindergarten educators, involving skills such as:

  • Collaborating with fellow educators to design and implement diverse experiences and activities that promote mental, artistic, motor, and social skill development, as well as fostering emotional and moral growth in kindergarten children.

  • Displaying receptivity to the experiences and insights of others, embracing constructive criticism with an open and receptive attitude, and actively seeking opportunities for self-improvement and skill development (Rateb & Reda, 2013, p. 37).

2.1.6 The role of the educator as a representative of society

Placing their children in kindergarten implies a significant degree of trust in the educator’s capabilities by parents. At this critical stage of a child’s formative years, educators assume a role akin to that of a parent. As Sirila Kabparanda notes, educators must assert their rights judiciously, as their comportment and demeanor significantly impact a child’s development. To cultivate an environment conducive to a child’s progress, educators must exhibit patience and readiness to respond promptly to children’s needs, displaying warmth, friendliness, and genuine affection. Furthermore, educators must inculcate prevailing societal values and work towards reinforcing positive habits and behaviors. Effective communication with parents is imperative, facilitated through regular meetings to collaboratively explore strategies for fostering a child’s growth. To fulfill this multifaceted role effectively, educators must possess a deep understanding of their society’s culture, heritage, and civics, in addition to genuine love for their profession and a profound affection for children, seeking to instill confidence, balance, and security in each child (Serla, 1992, pp. 92–93).

2.2 Objectives of kindergarten curricula

The overarching objectives of kindergarten curricula can be succinctly summarized as follows:

  • Facilitating the development of children’s sensory perceptions, enhancing their cognitive faculties, addressing their needs, and uncovering their inclinations and talents.

  • Cultivating comprehensive development encompassing physical, cognitive, psychological, and social dimensions, while nurturing adaptive thinking methodologies.

  • Ensuring curricula encompass all aspects conducive to children’s development in language and cognitive domains.

  • Encouraging initiative among both educators and children, thereby fostering innovative abilities.

  • Accommodating individual variations while upholding the principle of equal opportunities, necessitating flexibility to cater to the diverse needs of all children (Nayfeh & Alia, 1997, p. 280).

3. Field study

3.1 Method and procedures

3.1.1 Study methodology

This study adopts a descriptive approach, complemented by the content analysis method, chosen for its suitability in discerning indicators of social and psychological care within kindergarten programs in Saida City. The descriptive approach is a research method focusing on the examination of social and natural phenomena and situations. It involves collecting data and information pertaining to these phenomena and analyzing them to draw conclusions that contribute to understanding and enhancing our comprehension of reality (Muhammad Abbas et al., 2007, p. 18).

3.1.2 Study tool

3.1.2.1 List of social and psychological care indicators

The list of social and psychological care indicators encompasses a total of eight key indicators. This list was developed through a comprehensive process, including the following steps:

  1. Extensive review of existing studies, research, and relevant literature on the subject of social and psychological care.

  2. Solicitation of input from kindergarten educators in Saida City and specialists in the psychological and social aspects. They were tasked with identifying the most critical indicators of social and psychological care that should be integrated into kindergarten programs. Drawing from these diverse sources, a list of thirteen indicators was compiled, categorized into two domains: social care indicators and psychological care indicators. This composite list was incorporated into the study tool in its initial iteration.

The tool’s authenticity was validated by presenting it to a panel of kindergarten educators in Saida City. They were asked to assess the importance of each indicator, categorize them, and offer suggestions for improvements. This process led to the redistribution of certain indicators between the social and psychological domains and the removal of five paragraphs deemed irrelevant to the indicators of social and psychological care for kindergarten children. Subsequently, the tool was refined, resulting in a final version comprising eight paragraphs divided into two areas: social care indicators (four paragraphs) and psychological care indicators (four paragraphs). These indicators represent the study’s response to its primary research question.

3.1.2.2 Content analysis

The study employs content analysis to evaluate kindergarten programs, with a specific focus on social and psychological care indicators. A form for monitoring the frequency of these indicators within kindergarten programs is employed.

3.1.2.3 Distribution of social and psychological care indicators according to kindergarten educators

Educators were invited to assess the percentage of social and psychological care indicators, as outlined in the study tool, that should be incorporated into kindergarten programs. Table 1 presents these findings:

Table 1: Distribution of Social and Psychological Care Indicators as Assessed by Kindergarten Educators

Domains

Indicators

Expected

Frequency

Percentages

Social care

Quranic supplications and surahs that contribute to the development of the social aspect of the child.

25

21%

Programs that contribute to the integration of the child with the social environment.

19

16%

Recreational activities (handicrafts, theater, music and sports, play) that increase interaction between children in kindergarten.

40

33%

Programs that aim to: interaction, cooperation, tolerance, social communication.

36

30%

Total

120

100%

psychological care

Sports activities that achieve psychological compatibility for the child.

12

10%

Recreational activities (handicrafts, trips, sports and play) that achieve the psychological development of the child and reduce his psychological problems.

36

30%

Artistic activities (drawing, painting, theater, songs, and music) that help children freely express their feelings and make them feel comfortable and happy.

48

40%

Religious activities (Holy Quran, hadiths, religious songs, religious celebrations) that achieve the psychological and spiritual development of the child.

24

20%

Total

120

100%

Source: Field study data

3.1.2.4 Analysis sample

The analysis sample comprised the contents of kindergarten programs, specifically focusing on:

  • Programs designed to foster the social development of the child.

  • Programs intended to promote the psychological development of the child.

3.1.2.5 Determining the unit of analysis

The fundamental unit of analysis selected for this study was the word and its associated main idea, which forms the core around which each indicator revolves. Through the repetitive occurrence of social and psychological care indicators, the contents of kindergarten programs were scrutinized. The analysis process involved counting, measuring, and documenting the presence, absence, or repetition of each indicator within these programs.

3.1.2.6 Controls of the analysis process

Several control mechanisms were instituted throughout the analysis process, including:

  • Employing a predefined form to monitor and record the results, documenting the frequency of each unit and category of analysis.

  • Limiting the analysis to the scope of kindergarten programs in Saida City.

  • Ensuring that the analysis adhered to the procedural definition of social and psychological welfare indicators.

3.1.2.7 Steps of the analysis process

The analysis process adhered to the following steps:

  1. Adoption of a list of social and psychological care indicators proposed for inclusion in kindergarten programs, ensuring their scientific validity.

  2. Development of an analysis form comprising social and psychological care indicators, frequencies, and standard levels.

  3. Rigorous validation of the analysis process.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of the contents of kindergarten programs, focusing on the social and psychological welfare indicators adopted previously.

  5. Identification of the frequencies of each social and psychological welfare indicator within each program.

  6. Ranking of social and psychological care indicators based on their prevalence within the contents of kindergarten programs.

  7. Detailed analysis and discussion of the study results, culminating in a set of recommendations.

3.2 Statistical processing

Statistical processing relied on the utilization of frequencies and percentages to ascertain the presence of social and psychological care indicators within kindergarten program contents. Additionally, the Chi-squared (χ²) test was employed to assess the degree of alignment between the distribution of social and psychological care indicators resulting from the content analysis and the distribution anticipated by the kindergarten educators under study.

3.3 Analysis, interpretation, and discussion of study data

The analysis process incorporated content analysis of kindergarten programs, encompassing social and psychological care indicators. A monitoring form was used to record the frequencies and percentages of these indicators (observed) within the programs. The content of interviews with kindergarten educators under study was also analyzed to estimate the percentages of social and psychological care indicators (expected). SPSS software was utilized to assess the concordance (χ²) between:

  • The percentages of observed social welfare indicators derived from the content analysis of kindergarten programs and the percentages anticipated by kindergarten educators.

  • The percentages of observed psychological care indicators from kindergarten programs and the percentages anticipated by kindergarten educators.

3.3.1 Results of the first hypothesis test

The hypothesis being tested is as follows:

  • Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no statistically significant difference at the significance level (α=0.05) between the observed social welfare indicators from kindergarten programs, as determined through content analysis, and the percentages estimated by kindergarten educators.

  • Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): There is a statistically significant difference at the significance level (α=0.05) between the observed social welfare indicators from kindergarten programs, as determined through content analysis, and the percentages estimated by kindergarten educators.

To test the hypothesis, the Chi-squared (χ²) test was employed to assess the degree of correspondence between the distribution of observed social welfare indicators from kindergarten programs, as determined through content analysis, and the percentages estimated by kindergarten educators. The results are presented in Table 2.

Table 2: Extent of Correspondence (χ² Value) Between Observed Social Welfare Indicators and Expected Percentages by Kindergarten Educators1

Social Welfare Indicators

Observation

Expected

Frequency

Percentages

Frequency

Percentages

Quranic supplications and surahs that contribute to the development of the social aspect of the child.

28

23%

25

21%

Programs that contribute to the integration of the child with the social environment.

17

14%

19

16%

Recreational activities (handicrafts, theater, music and sports, play) that increase interaction between children in kindergarten

42

35%

40

33%

Programs that aim to: interaction, cooperation, tolerance, social communication.

33

28%

36

30%

Total

120

100%

120

100%

Source: Prepared by the researcher from the interview and analysis of the content of kindergarten programs under study, 2023

Figure N° 1. Represents observed and projected frequencies of social welfare indicators

Figure N° 1. Represents observed and projected frequencies of social welfare indicators

The results presented in Table 2 and Figure 1 demonstrate that the calculated value of (χ²) (0.959) at the degree of freedom (3) and the calculated significance level (0.811) exceeds the significance level (α=0.05). This leads to the acceptance of the null hypothesis (H0), indicating that there is no significant difference (congruence) between the observed social welfare indicators obtained from the analysis of kindergarten programs and the percentages estimated by kindergarten educators. Consequently, the kindergarten programs under study do not align with the expected distribution of observed social welfare indicators, thereby highlighting a lack of harmony between the actual content and the anticipated content.

This alignment between kindergarten educators, who recognized the importance of incorporating social welfare indicators in the programs, may be attributed to the fact that the nannies initially received training and education in the social aspect, facilitating the alignment between the content of kindergarten programs and the expected content.

3.3.2 Results of the second hypothesis test

The second hypothesis to be tested is as follows:

  • Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no statistically significant difference at the significance level (α=0.05) between the observed psychological care indicators derived from the analysis of kindergarten programs and the percentages estimated by kindergarten educators.

  • Alternative Hypothesis (Ha): There is a statistically significant difference at the significance level (α=0.05) between the observed psychological care indicators derived from the analysis of kindergarten programs and the percentages estimated by kindergarten educators.

To test this hypothesis, the Chi-squared (χ²) test was employed to assess the degree of correspondence between the distribution of observed psychological care indicators derived from the analysis of kindergarten programs and the percentages estimated by kindergarten educators. The results are presented in Table 3.

Table 3: Correspondence between Observed Psychological Care Indicators and Expected Percentages by Kindergarten Educators

Indicators of psychological care

Observation

Expected

Frequency

Percentages

Frequency

Percentages

Sports activities that achieve psychological compatibility for the child.

18

15%

12

10%

Recreational activities (handicrafts, trips, sports and play) that achieve the psychological development of the child and reduce his psychological problems.

42

35%

36

30%

Artistic activities (drawing, painting, theater, songs, and music) that help children freely express their feelings and make them feel comfortable and happy.

30

25%

48

40%

Religious activities (Holy Quran, hadiths, religious songs, religious celebrations) that achieve the psychological and spiritual development of the child.

30

25%

24

20%

Total

120

100%

120

100%

The results presented in Table 3 and Figure 1 reveal that the calculated (χ²) value is 12.25, with degrees of freedom (df) equal to 3 and a P-value of 0.007. This P-value is less than the significance level (α=0.05). Consequently, the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis (Ha), indicating a statistically significant difference between the observed psychological care indicators obtained from the analysis of kindergarten programs and the percentages estimated by kindergarten educators. These results suggest a disparity between the actual content and the expected content in kindergarten programs with regard to psychological care indicators.

Figure N° 2. Illustrates observed and expected frequencies of psychological care indicators

Figure N° 2. Illustrates observed and expected frequencies of psychological care indicators

The results presented in Table 3 and Figure 2 reveal that the calculated value of (χ²) is 12.25 at the degree of freedom (3) with a calculated significance level of 0.007. This significance level is lower than the chosen significance level (α=0.05), leading to the rejection of the null hypothesis (H0) and the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis (Ha). Therefore, there is a significant difference (mismatch) between the psychological care indicators observed in kindergarten programs through content analysis and the percentages estimated by kindergarten educators. This discrepancy suggests that kindergarten programs do not adequately incorporate the expected distribution of psychological care indicators, highlighting the disparity between the actual content and the anticipated content.

The variation between kindergarten educators’ recognition of the importance of including psychological care indicators in programs can be attributed to the limited training and education in the psychological aspect provided to kindergarten nannies. This difference underscores the divergence between the content of kindergarten programs and the desired content.

Results

The study, based on the analysis of kindergarten program content and the expectations of several kindergarten educators, yielded several significant findings, including:

  • There is a statistically significant correspondence, at a significance level of (α=0.05), between the distribution of social welfare indicators (such as supplications and Quranic surahs, child integration programs, recreational activities, interactive programs, cooperation, and tolerance) in kindergarten programs through content analysis and the distribution estimated by kindergarten educators.

  • There is a statistically significant difference, at a significance level of (α=0.05), between the distribution of psychological care indicators (including sports activities, recreational activities, artistic activities, and religious activities) in kindergarten programs through content analysis and the distribution estimated by kindergarten educators.

Conclusion

The study concludes that kindergartens play a vital role in fostering the social development of children through various interactive social activities. This can be attributed to the substantial experience of most kindergarten educators in this domain. However, the study identified a deficit in psychological care programs, potentially stemming from the limited training provided to kindergarten nannies in the psychological domain. Based on the study’s findings, the following recommendations are proposed:

  • The development of a standardized kindergarten curriculum designed by experts in the fields of social, psychological, and educational sciences, which should be approved and implemented by the Ministry of Education in Algeria and distributed to all kindergartens.

  • The establishment of specialized programs in Algerian universities dedicated to training and qualifying kindergarten educators and directors.

  • The establishment of academic cooperation agreements between Algeria and developed countries in the field of kindergartens to benefit from their experiences and expertise.

  • The promotion of collaboration between families of kindergarten children and kindergarten institutions through meetings, seminars, and celebrations to enhance the overall development and well-being of the children.

  • The creation of positions for social and psychological workers within kindergarten institutions to provide necessary psychological and social care for kindergarten children.

  • Collaboration between legal experts and professionals in education, social services, and psychology to propose comprehensive legislation that defines the structure and functioning of kindergarten institutions.

1 Calculated 2) value= 0.959, degrees of freedom (df) = 3, P-value= 0.811

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Maher, A. A.-M. A. (2010). Recent Trends in Social Welfare. Modern University Office.

Malika, R. (1989). The Role of Structured Play in Teaching Social Roles.

Mohamed, R. R., & et al. (1984). Fundamentals of Education and Psychology. Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi.

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Muhammad Abbas, & et al. (2007). Introduction to Research Methods in Education and Psychology. Dar Al-Masirah for Publishing and Distribution.

Nayfeh, Q., & Alia, A.-R. (1997). Child Development and Care (Vol. 1). Dar Al-Shorouk.

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1 Calculated 2) value= 0.959, degrees of freedom (df) = 3, P-value= 0.811

Figure N° 1. Represents observed and projected frequencies of social welfare indicators

Figure N° 1. Represents observed and projected frequencies of social welfare indicators

Figure N° 2. Illustrates observed and expected frequencies of psychological care indicators

Figure N° 2. Illustrates observed and expected frequencies of psychological care indicators

Helima Rezaiguia

Moulay Tahar - University of Saida

Zina Benhacene

University of 8 may 1945 - Guelma

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